Milkweed Citations
Home Up Research Crops Personnel Field Tours Funding Sources Related Links

 

Adams, R.P., M.F. Baladrin, and J.R. Martineau. 1984. The showy milkweed, Asclepias speciosa, a potential new semi-arid land crop for energy and chemicals. Biomass 4:81-104.

Adams, R.P., A.S. Tomb, and S.C. Price. 1987. Investigation of hybridization between Asclepias speciosa and A. syriaca using alkanes, fatty acids and triterpenoids. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 15:395-399.

Aly, R., A. Stein, S. Levy, B. Raccah, and G. Loebenstein. 1986. Spread and control of cucumber mosaic virus in gladiolus. Phytoparasitica 14:205-217.

Anderson, R.N. 1968. Germination and establishment of weeds for experimental purposes. Weed Science Society of America, Urbana, IL.

Becker, H. 2000. Census shows where milkweed grows. Agr. Res. 48:16-17.

Berkman, B.1949. Milkweed—a war strategic material and a potential industrial crop for submarginal lands in the United States. Econ. Bot. 3:223-239.

Bhowmik, P.C. 1978. Germination, growth, and development of common milkweed. Can. J. Plant Sci. 58:493-498.

Bhowmik, P.C. 1982. Herbicidal control of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca). Weed Sci. 30:349-351.

Bhowmik, P.C. 1985. Absorption, translocation, and distribution of 14C-2,4-D in common milkweed. Proc. Annu. Meet. Northeast Weed Sci. Soc. 39:92-97.

Bhowmik, P.C. 1994. Biology and control of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca).  Rev. Weed Sci. 6:227-250.

Bhowmik, P.C. and J.D. Bandeen. 1976. The biology of Canadian weeds. 19. Asclepias syriaca L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 56:579-589.

Bir, R.E. 1986. The mystery of milkweed germination. American Nurseyman 164:94-97.

Bookman, S.S. 1984. Evidence for selective fruit production in Asclepias. Evolution 38:72-86.

Buchanon, R.A., I.M. Cull, F.H. Otey, and C.R. Russell. 1978. Hydrocarbon- and rubber-producing crops. Econ. Bot. 32:131-145.

Bwye, A.M., W. Proudlove, F.A. Berlandier, and R.A.C. Jones. 1997. Effects of applying insecticides to control aphid vectors and cucumber mosaic virus in narrow-leafed lupins (Lupinus angustifolius). Aust. J. Exp. Agr. 37:93-102.

Bwye, A.M., R.A.C. Jones, and W. Proudlove. 1999. Effects of different cultural practices on spread of cucumber mosaic virus in narrow-leafed lupins (Lupinus angustifolius). Aust. J. Agr. Res. 50:985-996.

Campbell, T.A. 1983. Chemical and agronomic evaluation of common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca. Econ. Bot. 37:174-180.

Campbell, T.A. 1985. Growth analysis in common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca). Can. J. Botany 63:2345-2349.

Cramer, G.L. 1977. Life history of common milkweed. Proc. Annu. Meet. North Cent. Weed Control Conf. 32:99-100.

Cramer, G.L. 1977. Physiology of common milkweed. Proc. Annu. Meet. North Cent. Weed Control Conf. 32:105-106.

Cramer, G.L. and O.C. Burnside. 1981. Control of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca). Weed Sci. 29:636-640.

Crews, P.C., S.A. Sievert, L.T. Woeppel, and E.A. McCullough. 1991. Evaluation of milkweed floss as an insulative fill material. Text. Res. J. 61:203-210.

Dailey, P.J., R.C. Graves, and J.L. Herring. 1978. Survey of Hemiptera collected on common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca, at one site in Ohio. Entomol. News 89:157-162.

Dailey, P.J., R.C. Graves, and J.M. Kingsolver. 1978. Survey of Coleoptera collected on the common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca, at one site in Ohio.  The Coleopts. Bulletin 32:223-229.

Eisikowitch, D., P.G. Kevan, S. Fowle, and K. Thomas. 1987. The significance of pollen longevity in Asclepias syriaca L. under natural conditions. Pollen et Spores 29:121-128.

Eisikowitch, D., P.G. Kevan, and M.A. LaChance. 1990. The nectar-inhabiting yeasts and their effect on pollen germination in common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L. Israel J. Bot. 39:217-225.

Eisikowitch, D., M.A. LaChance, P.G. Kevan, S. Willis, and D.L. Collins-Thompson. 1990. Effect of the natural assemblage of microorganisms and selected strains of the yeast Metschnikowia reukaufii in controlling the germination of pollen of the common milkweed Asclepias syriaca. Can. J. Botany 68:1163-1165.

Evetts, L.L. 1977. Common milkweed – the problem. Proc. Annu. Meet. North Cent. Weed Control Conf. 32:96-99.

Evetts, L.L. and O.C. Burnside. 1972. Germination and seedling development of common milkweed and other species. Weed Sci. 20:371-378.

Evetts, L.L. and O.C. Burnside. 1972. Germination characteristics of five milkweed species. North Central Weed Control Conference Research Reports 29:59-61.

Evetts, L.L. and O.C. Burnside. 1972. Seed weight and germination of 25 selections of common milkweed. North Central Weed Control Conference Research Reports 29:48-49.

Evetts, L.L. and O.C. Burnside. 1972. Susceptibility of common milkweed and hemp dogbane to 11 herbicides. North Central Weed Control Conference Research Reports 29:9-10.

Evetts, L.L. and O.C. Burnside. 1973. Common milkweed seed maturation. Weed Sci. 21:568-569.

Evetts, L.L. and O.C. Burnside. 1973. Competition of common milkweed with sorghum. Agron. J. 65:931-932.

Evetts, L.L. and O.C. Burnside. 1973. Effect of herbicides on common milkweed seed production. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the North Central Weed Control Conference 30:23-25.

Evetts, L.L. and O.C. Burnside. 1974. Root distribution and vegetative propagation of Asclepias syriaca L. Weed Res. 14:283-288.

Evetts, L.L. and O.C. Burnside. 1975. Effect of early competition on growth of common milkweed. Weed Sci. 23:1-3.

Farmer, J.M., S.C. Price, and C.R. Bell. 1986. Population, temperature, and substrate influences on common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) seed germination. Weed Sci. 34:525-528.

Fletchall, O.H. 1977. Common milkweed control in noncrop areas. Proc. Annu. Meet. North Cent. Weed Control Conf. 32:106-107.

Franson, S.E. and M.F. Willson. 1983. Seed predation and patterns of fruit production in Asclepias syriaca L. Oecologia 59:370-376.

Fritz, R.S. and D.H. Morse. 1981. Nectar parasitism of Asclepias syriaca by ants: effect on nectar levels, pollinia insertion, pollinaria removal and pod production. Oecologia 50:316-319.

Gerhardt, F. 1929. Propagation and food translocation in the common milkweed. J. Agric. Res. 39:837-851.

Gladfelter, C.F. 1946. Milkweed floss collections in Kansas. Kansas Acad. Sci. Trans. 49:217-218.

Glaser, L. 1991. Kenaf & milkweed: new fiber crops. Agric. Outlook AO U.S. Dept. Agric. Res. Serv. 177:13-15.

Gold, J.J. and J.S. Shore. 1995. Multiple paternity in Asclepias syriaca using a paired-fruit analysis. Can. J. Botany 73:1212-1216.

Gooch, J.J. 1997. Getting the jump on CMV. Am. Veg. Grow. 45:18-19.

Groet, S.S. and G.H. Kidd. 1981. Somatic embryogenesis and regeneration from milkweed cell cultures. Biomass 1:93-97.

Groh, H. 1943. Notes on common milkweed. Sci. Agric. 23:625-632.

Groh, H. and W.G. Dore. 1945. A milkweed survey near Ontario in adjacent Quebec. Sci. Agric. 25:463-481.

Harry O’kuru, R.E., H. Mojtahedi, S.F. Vaughn, P.F. Dowd, G.S. Santo, R.A. Holser, and T.P. Abbott. 1999. Milkweed seedmeal: a control for Meloidogyne chitwoodi on potatoes. Ind. Crop. Prod. 9:145-155.

Hobbs, H.A., D.M. Eastburn, C.J. D’Arcy, J.D. Kindhart, J.B. Masiunas, D.J. Voegtlin, R.A. Weinzierl, and N.K. McCoppin. 2000. Solanaceous weeds as possible sources of Cucumber mosaic virus in Southern Illinois for aphid transmission to pepper. Plant Dis. 84:1221-1224.

Hsiao, A.I. and G.I. McIntyre. 1984. Evidence of competition for water as a factor in the mechanism of root-bud inhibition in milkweed (Asclepias syriaca). Can. J. Botany 62:379-384.

Janick, J., M.G. Blase, D.L. Johnson, G.D. Jollliff, and R.L. Myers. 1996. Diversifying U.S. crop production. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, Issue Paper, No.6.

Jeffery, L.S. and L.R. Robison. 1971. Growth characteristics of common milkweed. Weed Sci. 19:193-196.

Jennersten, O. and D.H. Morse. 1991. The quality of pollination by diurnal and nocturnal insects visiting common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca. Am. Midl. Nat. 125:18-28.

Johnston, G. 1989. I know farmers who could be low-cost growers of world-class milkweeds. Successful Farming 87:17.

Jones, D. and K.L. Von Bargen. 1992. Some physical properties of milkweed pods. Trans. ASAE 35:243-246.

Kahn, A.P. and D.H. Morse. 1991. Pollinium germination and putative ovule penetration in self- and cross-pollinated common milkweed Asclepias syriaca. Am. Midl. Nat. 126:61-67.

Kephart, S.R. 1981. Breeding systems in Asclepias incarnata L., A. syriaca L., and A. verticillata L. Am. J. Bot. 68:226-232.

Kephart, S.R. 1987. Phenological variation in flowering and fruiting of Asclepias. Am. Midl. Nat. 118:64-76.

Kevan, P.G., D. Eisikowitch, and B. Rathwell. 1989. The role of nectar in the germination of pollen in Asclepias syriaca L. Bot. Gaz. 150:266-270.

Knorr, D. and S.M. Miazga. 1987. Production of protease from cell cultures of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.).  J. Agric. Food Chem. 35:624-627.

Knudsen, H.D. and R.D. Zeller. 1993. The milkweed business. In J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.), pp. 428-431. New crops. Wiley, New York.

Lincoln, W.C. Jr. 1976. Germination of Asclepias syriaca, common milkweed. Newsl. Assoc. Off. Seed Anal. 50:17-18.

Louis, G.L. and B.A.K. Andrews. 1987. Cotton/milkweed blends: a novel textile product. Text. Res. J. 57:339-345.

McGraw, L. 1999. New uses for milkweed. ARS News & Information. Retrieved April 10, 2001, from the World Wide Web: http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/1999/991001.htm

McGraw, L. 1999. Three new crops for the future. Agr. Res. 47:18-19.

Macior, L.W. 1965. Insect adaptation and behavior in Asclepias pollination. B. Torrey Bot. Club 92:114-126.

Milkweed finds new uses as a pesticide. 2000, February 15. Successful Farming 98:39b.

Milkweed keeps you warm. 1992, March. Organic Gardening 39:19.

Minshall, W.H. 1977. The biology of common milkweed.  Proc. Annu. Meet. North Cent. Weed Control Conf. 32:101-104.

Moore, R.J. 1946. Investigations on rubber bearing plants. IV. Cytogenetic studies in Asclepias Torr. L. Can. J. Res. (Sect. C.) 24:66-73. 

Moore, R.J. 1947. Investigations on rubber-bearing plants. V. Notes on the flower biology and pod yield of Asclepias syriaca L. Can. Field Nat. 61:40-46.

Morgan, M.T. and D.J. Schoen. 1997. Selection on reproductive characters: floral morphology in Asclepias syriaca. Heredity 79:433-441. 

Morse, D.H. 1982. The turnover of milkweed pollinia on bumble bees, and implications for outcrossing. Oecologia 53:187-196.

Morse, D.H. 1985. Milkweeds and their visitors. Sci. Am. 253:112-119.

Morse, D.H. 1987. Roles of pollen and ovary age in follicle production of the common milkweed Asclepias syriaca. Am. J. Bot. 74:851-856.

Morse, D.H. 1993. The twinning of follicles by common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca). Am. Midl. Nat. 130:56-61.

Morse, D.H. 1994. The role of self-pollen in the female reproductive success of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca: Asclepiadaceae). Am. J. Bot. 81:322-330.

Morse, D.H. and R.S. Fritz. 1983. Contributions of diurnal and nocturnal insects to the pollination of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) in a pollen-limited system. Oecologia 60:190-197.

Morse, D.H. and R.S. Fritz. 1985. Variation in the pollinaria, anthers, and alar fissures of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.). Am. J. Bot. 72:1032-1038.

Morse, D.H. and J. Schmitt. 1991. Maternal and paternal effects on follicle production in the milkweed Asclepias syriaca (Asclepiadaceae). Am. J. Bot. 78:1304-1309.

Muenscher, W.C. 1975. Poisonous plants of the United States (Rev. ed.). New York: Collier MacMillan. 

Oegema, T. and R. A. Fletcher. 1972. Factors that influence dormancy in milkweed seeds.  Can. J. Botany 50:713-718.

Pearson, N.L. 1947. Variations in floss characteristics among plants of Asclepias syriaca L. having different types of pods. Am. Midl. Nat. 38:615-637.

Pearson, N.L. 1948. Observations on seed and seed hair growth in Asclepias syriaca L. Am. J. Bot. 35:27-36.

Phillips, R.L. and D.P.H. Tucker. 1973. An evaluation of new herbicides for milkweed vine control. Proc. Fla. State Hortic. Soc. 86:29-33.

Pleasants, J.M. 1991. Evidence for short-distance dispersal of pollinia in Asclepias syriaca L. Funct. Ecol. 5:75-82.

Polowick, P.L. and M.V.S. Raju. 1982. The origin and development of root buds in Asclepias syriaca. Can. J. Botany 60:2119-2125.

Rist, D.L. and J.W. Lorbeer. 1989. Occurrence and overwintering of cucumber mosaic virus and broad bean wilt virus in weeds growing near commercial lettuce fields in New York.  Phytopathology 79:65-69.

Rist, D.L. and J.W. Lorbeer. 1991. Relationships of weed reservoirs of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and broad bean wilt virus (BBWV) to CMV and BBWV in commercial lettuce fields in New York. Phytopathology 81:367-371.

Rollins, M.L. 1947. Photomicrographic comparison of milkweed bast and cotton lint in relation to cell-wall structure of other natural cellulose fibers. Bot. Gaz. 108:495-510.

Sauer, D. and D. Feir. 1974. Population and maturation characteristics of the common milkweed. Weed Sci. 22:293-297.

Schwartz, D.M. 1987. Underachiever of the plant world. Audubon 89:47-61.

Senn, H.A. 1944. Early studies of milkweed utilization in Canada. Can. Field Nat. 58:177-180.

Shore, J.S. 1993. Pollination genetics of the common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L. Heredity 70:101-108.

Sparrow, F.K. 1946. Types of pods of Asclepias syriaca found in Michigan. J. Agric. Res. 73:65-80.

Sparrow, F.K. and N.L. Pearson. 1948. Pollen compatibility in Asclepias syriaca. J. Agric. Res. 77:187-199.

Stevens, O.A. 1945. Cultivation of milkweed. North Dakota Agric. Expt. Stn. Bull. 333.

Tideman, J. and J.S. Hawker. 1982. In vitro propagation of latex-producing plants. Ann. Bot. 49:273-279.

Timmons, F.L. 1946. Studies of the distribution and floss yield of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) in northern Michigan. Ecology 27:212-225.

Von Bargen, K., D. Jones, R. Zeller, and P. Knudsen. 1994. Equipment for milkweed floss-fiber recovery. Ind. Crop. Prod. 2:201-210.

Waldecker, M.A. and D.L. Wyse. 1985. Chemical and physical effects of the accumulation of glyphosate in common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) root buds. Weed Sci. 33:605-611. 

Willson, M.F. and P.W. Price. 1980. Resource limitation of fruit and seed production in some Asclepias species. Can. J. Botany 58:2229-2233.

Witt, M.D. and H.D. Knudsen. 1993. Milkweed cultivation for floss production. In J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.), pp. 428-431. New crops. Wiley, New York.

Witt, M.D. and L.A. Nelson. 1992. Milkweed as a new cultivated row crop. J. Prod. Agric. 5:167-171.

Wyatt, R. 1976. Pollination and fruit-set in Asclepias: a reappraisal. Am. J. Bot. 63:845-851.

Wyatt, R., S.B. Broyles, and G.S. Derda. 1992. Environmental influences on nectar production in milkweeds (Asclepias syriaca and A. exaltata).  Am. J. Bot. 79:636-642.

Wyrill, J.B., III and O.C. Burnside. 1976. Absorption, translocation, and metabolism of 2,4-D and glyphosate in common milkweed and hemp dogbane. Weed Sci. 24:557-566.

Wyrill, J.B., III and O.C. Burnside. 1977. Glyphosate toxicity to common milkweed and hemp dogbane as influenced by surfactants.  Weed Sci. 25:275-287.

Yenish, J.P., T.A. Fry, B.R. Durgan, and D.L. Wyse. 1997. Establishment of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) in corn, soybean, and wheat. Weed Sci. 45:44-53.

Zeller, R.D., H.D. Knudson, and P.D. Knudsen. 1996. Commercial production of milkweed pods: an alternative business.  In L.H. Princen and C. Rossi (eds.), pp. 398-402. Jojoba and its uses. Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops, Peoria, IL

Back to top

©2007 All photographs and content included at this website are protected by Western Illinois University. 

  Comments concerning this web site may be directed to WB-Phippen@wiu.edu (309-298-1251).

Last revised: January 23, 2007