Department of Geography, Geographic Information Science and Meteorology

You will use the author-date citation form adopted by the Professional Geographer and the Annals of the Association of American Geographers for all work submitted. The style is that of The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th edition, Chapter 16, style B. Do not use numbered footnotes for citations. All works citied in a paper should be listed in the bibliography alphabetically by author (multiple works by the same author are listed chronologically). Although Style B often uses initials for an author's given name, you should spell out the name. The bibliography is to be typed, double-spaced, and should include the author's last and first names.


Up to three authors. Do not separate the name and date by a comma. When including a specific page in the citation, it follows the date, preceded by a comma.

   (Knox 1994)
   (Short and Kim 1999, 128)
   (Dempsey, Goetz, and Szliowicz 1997)

More than three authors. Use the name of the first author followed by "et al." Note the period after al.

   (Salter et al. 2000)

Two or more references given together. Separate the references chronologically using a semicolon.

   (White 1988; Hamilton 1989; Cropper and Gordon 1991)

Two or more references by the same author. Cite by date only and separate using commas.

   (Giuliano 1986, 1995)
(Payne-Maxie Consultants 1980a, 1980b, 1980c)

Author of a chapter in an edited book. If the author of a book chapter is known, cite the chapter author(s), not the editor(s) of the book.

  Including a page reference. When including a page reference, separate the year from the page number(s) by a comma. Do not use "p." or "pp."

   (Livingstone 1992, 31)
   (Livingstone 1992, 43-46)


BOOKS. The items that are to be included for a book are:

  • Name of author(s), editor(s), or institution responsible for writing the book
  • Year of publication
  • The full title of the book (including the subtitle)
  • The title of series (if any) and the volume or number in the series
  • Volume number or total number of volumes of a multivolume work
  • Edition (if not the original)
  • City of publication
  • Publisher's name
  • If the bibliographic reference is multiple lines, indent all lines following the first line.

One author. The title of the book is italicized. When giving the place of publication, give the first city if two or more cities are listed with the publisher's name. If the place of publication is not widely known, the abbreviation of the state (or country) should follow it, preceded by a comma.

   Knox, Paul. 1994. Urbanization: An Introduction to Urban Geography.
nglewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Two or more authors. The name of the first author is reversed and the following names are not reversed with all names separated by commas.

   Dempsey, Paul Steven, Andrew R. Goetz, and Joseph S. Szyliowicz. 1997.
          Denver International Airport: Lessons Learned. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Chapter from a book. Titles of the chapter are given followed by "In" and the title of the book in italics. Inclusive page numbers may be given if desired and should follow the reference to the book's editor.

   Livingstone, David N. 1992. A Brief History of Geography. In The Student's
          Companion to Geography
, edited by Alisdair Rogers, Heather Viles, and
Andrew Goudie, 27-35. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

JOURNAL ARTICLES. Style B uses no quotation marks for the article title, italicizing the journal title. The volume number follows the journal title with no punctuation separating them. Inclusive page numbers are included following the volume. A colon separates the volume number and page numbers, with no space following the colon (e.g., 24:255-78). Note that "vol." and "pp." are omitted.

The items that are to be included for an article are:

  • Name of author(s), editor(s), or institution responsible for writing the book
  • Year of publication
  • The title of the article
  • The title of periodical
  • Volume number
  • Pages occupied by the article

The naming convention described earlier for books applies to articles as well.

   Sutton, Christopher J. 1999. Land Use Change Along Denver's I-225 Beltway.
           Journal of Transport Geography 7:31-41.

   Goetz, Andrew R. and Christopher J. Sutton. 1997. The Geography of
          Deregulation in the U.S. Airline Industry. Annals of the Association of
          American Geographers


ABBREVIATIONS. When using i.e. (an abbreviation for id est, "that is") or e.g. (an abbreviation for exempli gratia, "for example") in a sentence, always follow the abbreviation with a comma. The common abbreviations etc., e.g., and i.e. are used almost exclusively in parenthetical references.

   All urban land is affected to varying degrees by business cycles and land
   ownership (e.g., numbers of owners, type of land).

   Most of the zoning changed from a more restrictive use to less-restrictive,
   higher-intensity uses (i.e., permissible building heights were increased and
   commercial zoning replaced residential zoning).

TABLES AND FIGURES . Abbreviate"figure" with "Fig." (e.g., Fig. 1. Metropolitan evolution as a response to transportation innovations) when a caption or legend follows. If no captions or legends are used with figures, spell out the label (e.g., Figure 1). Every table is to be numbered and is cited in the text by that number. Do not reference using "Figure 1 shows …" or "Table 3 proves …" When referencing, remember to capitalize Table or Figure.

   For the portion of the corridor inward of I-225, at no time were densities high
   enough to accept the research hypothesis (Table 19).

   As with the I-225 corridor, the C-470 corridor includes land within one mile of the
   route (Figure 3).