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Colloquia & Seminars, Fall 2005

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List of speakers in order of appearance:

Prof. Saleem Rao, Western Illinois University Physics Department
Prof. Redina Herman, Western Illinois University Geography Department
Prof. Brian Davies, Western Illinois University Physics Department
Prof. Kevin Kimberlin, Bradley University, Peoria
Frank D. Trumpy, WIU Alumnus
Prof. Paul Kwiat, UIUC-AMO Group
Thida Lwin Crouse
Matt Crouse
Prof. Mark Alford, Washington University in St. Louis
Dr. Irina Novikova, Harvard Smithsonian Center
Dr. Mikhail Zamkov, UIUC
Dr. Chuji Wang, DIAL of Mississippi State University
Dr. Eugeniy Mikhailov, LIGO Laboratory, MIT

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Title: Carbon Nanotubes: Introduction, Properties, Applications and Research Findings

Date: Friday, September 16, 2005
Time: 4:00 pm.
Room: 205 Currens Hall
Prof. Saleem Rao, Department of Physics, WIU

Abstract
In the past five decades, there has been a nearly constant exponential growth in the capabilities of silicon-based microelectronics, as summarized in the Moore's law [1]. However it is unlikely that these advances will continue much into the next decade, because fundamental physical limtations, which prevent current design from functioning reliably at nanometer scale, will be reached while at the same time exponentially-rising fabrication cost will make it impossible to raise the integration level. Molecular electronics [2, 3] can in principle overcome these limitations of silicon technology because it is possible to have single-molecule device that are organized at much lower cost in parallel by self-assembly techniques. Much effort in this area has been focused on organic molecules as device elements, with recent demonstrations of irreversible switches and large negative differential resistance for ensemble of molecules sandwiched between metal electrodes and single-molecule transistors.

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Title: Global Warming

Date: Friday, October 14, 2005
Time: 4 p.m.
Room: 205 Currens Hall
Prof. Redina Herman, Geography Dept., WIU.

Abstract
Over the past decade, there has been a lot of focus on global warming. This followed a lot of focus on a returning ice age during the 1980’s. It would be nice to know what’s really going on, wouldn’t it? Unfortunately, this is not that presentation (or at least mostly not that presentation.) Before we can figure out what’s really going on, we have to look at what the data is telling us. There are a number of scientific issues that must be considered when asking the question: Is global warming real? This presentation will talk about scientific considerations such as: the temperature record, the normal cycle between glacial and interglacial periods, changes brought on by the Industrial Revolution, infrared absorbers such as greenhouse gases, UV reflectors such as sulfates, global and regional model results, local versus global-mean effects and finally, trying to put it all together. My current area of research is radiative transfer, so some time will be spent on the radiative transfer considerations and what these radiative transfer results mean for the future global-mean surface temperature.

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Title: Electron-beam induced decomposition of trimethylamine on Si(100)-2x1

Date: Friday, October 21, 2005
Time: 4 p.m.
Room: 336 Currens Hall
Prof. Brian Davis, Department of Physics, WIU

Abstract
Electron beam-induced decomposition of trimethylamine (CH3)3N) adsorbed on the Si(100)-2x1 surface has been investigated using temperature-programmed desorption, electron-stimulated desorption, time-of-flight, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. At issue is the cleavage of the C-H bonds vs cleavage of N-C bonds in the dissociation of trimethylamine (TMA), which is a dative-bonded adduct on the Si dimer. Methyl groupes are cleaved from the adsorbed TMA by electron irradiation. In addition, hydrogen is desorbed form the TMA and/or its fragments, which influences the decomposition of the TMA to smaller adsorbed fragments, producing thermal desorption products which are similar to those reported previously in gas phase decomposition of TMA at high temperature.

This talk describes work done at Bradley University in 2002-2003, in collaboration with Dr. Jim Craig of the Bradley Physics Department. It will be at the level of undergraduate Physics majors.

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Title: Nanostructures and Quantum Size Effects: Self Aligned Structures in Ag/Si(111)

Date: Friday, October 27, 2005.
Time: 4 p.m.
Room: 205 Currens Hall
Prof. Kevin Kimberlin, Bradley University, Peoria

Abstract
In recent years, as the ever shrinking electronic device reaches the limits of conventional silicon thin film technology, a search for convenient methods of producing nanostructures has begun in earnest.  In the nanoregime, the quantized nature of atomic systems begins to manifest itself as the size of structures on the surface reaches the atomic scale.  These Quantum Size Effects (QSE) can affect bulk properties of materials, such as conductance and magnetic properties.  One particularly interesting area is the effect of QSE on growth and structure of ultrathin films.  A novel restructuring in metal on semiconductor systems with annealing has been shown in several systems, among them one of the oldest studied systems in surface science, the Ag/Si(111) system.  A restructuring of 1.3 and 5.7 ML films grown at 100 K and annealed to various temperatures occurs where unusual vertical sided, flat topped islands form on the surface.  The restructuring in this and other systems will be discussed in terms of the “phase accumulation” and “electronic growth” models, where QSE are manifested due to the wavelike properties of the electrons in the films.

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Title: Assessing Student Learning in Mathematics and Science

Date: Monday, November 7, 2005
Time: 4:00 pm.
Room: 205 Currens Hall
Frank D. Trumpy, WIU Alumnus

Abstract
A straightfoward summative assessment approach has been taken to assess and improve student learning in mathematics and science. The model minimizes effort on the part of teaching faculty, produces confidential results that are not used to evaluate individual teachers and emphasizes the importance of improving student learning. The approach, which began in mathematics, is now being applied to selected biology, chemistry and physics courses, as well.

About the speaker
Franklin D. Trumpy is an alumnus of the Physics Department at WIU. He majored in physics with a mathematics minor and graduated with Highest Honors in 1967. He then continued his graduate studies in Physics at Iowa State University, receiving his M.S. degree in 1972. From 1967-70 Frank Trumpy held NASA Fellowship and from 1970-72 he held USAEC Fellowship at Ames Laboratory of ISU, where he conducted research in the electrical properties of solids. In 1972 Trumpy began his teaching career at Des Moines Area Community College, Ankeny Campus. Since 1982 he is the Group Leader of Mathematics, Science and Engineering areas and has the responsibility to coordinate over these disciplines between five campuses. He retired in 2004. Some of his International Activities include DMACC delegation member to Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute and Associate Membership in North Caucasus Center for Education and Economic Development (Center Columbus), May, 1992 - conducted workshops and seminars on curriculum management for community colleges in the cities of Stavropol and Pyatigorsk, Russian Federation. DMACC delgation member to Stavropol State Pedagogical Institued and Center Columbus, May, 1993 - conducted semnars on curriculum management and accreditation for community colleges in Stavropol, Georgivsk and Svetlograd, Russian Federation. He established and installed internet connections at three locations in Hebei Province, People's Republic of China, January 1997; established internet account and trained personnel at Polyclinic and Women's Health Center for AIHA/IHERF, Essentuki, Stavropol Krai, March 1997 with a follow-up in March 1998 to name a few.

Frank Trumpy has published widley and he has received many Awards and Honors.

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Title: The Quantum Information Revolution: Einstein's Legacy

Date: Monday, November 14, 2005
Time: 4 p.m
Room: 205 Currens Hall
Prof. Paul Kwiat, UIUC  - AMO Group

Abstract
In 1905 Einstein proposed that light is really made of particles, arguably starting the quantum revolution, even though his suggestion was not accepted for over 15 years, and even though he himself later had trouble accepting the bizarre consequences of quantum entanglement. Now 100 years later, the quantum information revolution seeks to use the almost magical properties of entanglement, superposition, and the wave-particle duality, to enable new feats in information processing, such as quantum interrogation ("seeing" an object with no light hitting it), quantum cryptography (for sending completely secure secret messages), and quantum teleportation. I will describe some of these "miracles", and, appetites permitting, give a brief lesson in quantum cooking.

About the speaker
Bardeen Professor of Physics and of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Professor Paul G. Kwiat received his Ph. D. from the University of California, Berkeley (1993), where his dissertation was on nonclassical effects from spontaneous parametric downconversion. After two years as a Lise Meitner Fellow with the premier quantum optics group of Prof. Anton Zeilinger (at the Univ. of Innsbruck, Austria), he went to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as an Oppenheimer Fellow; in 1998 he became a technical staff member in the Neutron Science and Technology group of Physics Division. He has given invited talks at numerous national and international conferences and has authored more than 100 articles on various topics in quantum optics and quantum information, including several review articles. He is a Fellow of the Optical Society of America and the American Physical Society.

In 1998, Professor Kwiat was awarded the LANL Fellows Prize for his work on optical studies of quantum information. He has done pioneering research on the phenomena of quantum interrogation, quantum erasure, and optical implementations of quantum information protocols. He is a primary inventor of the world's only two sources of polarization-entangled photons from down-conversion, which have been used for quantum cryptography, dense-coding, quantum teleportation, entanglement distillation, and most recently, optical quantum gates. In January 2001, he joined the Physics faculty as the second Bardeen Chair.

http://www.physics.uiuc.edu/People/Faculty/profiles/Kwiat/

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Title: Use of X-ray imaging in Minimally Invasive Surgery

Date: Monday, November 28, 2005 (second lecture to follow immediately)
Time: 4 p.m.
Room: 205 Currens Hall
Thida Lwin Crouse

Abstract
Will cover the use of X-ray imaging in Minimally Invasive Surgery. I will start with how GE is divided into major businesses and their products. Go into GE Healthcare and its modalities and do detailed description of Surgery mobile x-ray machines and their applications.

About the speaker
B.S. and M.S. EE - University of IL - Champaign/Urbana (Pre-engineering - W.I.U)
M.S. Thesis: Ultrasound
MBA (Univ. of Utah - May 2006)
Hardware design engineer at BF Goodrich Aerospace (Fuel indicators for airplanes)
Hardware design engineer at Prucka Engineering, Inc. (acquired by GE Healthcare)
Lead Program Integrator (GE name for project manager) (GE Healthcare)
Manage Engineering Projects for Invasive Cardiology and Surgery Modalities

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Title: Science & Engineering --- The New Liberal Arts?

Date: Monday, November 28, 2005
Time: 4 p.m.
Room: 205 Currens Hall
Matt Crouse

Abstract
A Liberal Arts education has been viewed as highly beneficial for many reasons, one of them for providing students with enough breadth to enter a variety of professions. Nowadays, it can be argued that Science & Engineering provide a similar (yet distinct) benefit, as students are equipped with critical problem solving, teamwork, and technology skills that transfer well to a variety of modern careers. I will discuss the benefits of a Science & Engineering background within the context of Business & Finance, sprinkling in some advice for those considering a move outside Science & Engineering.

About the Speaker
A Charleston, Illinois native, Matt Crouse earned an MS in EE from the University of Illinois and BS (magna cum laude, Phi Beta Kappa) and PhD degrees in EE from Rice University. His research on wavelets and hidden Markov models led to an IEEE Signal Processing Young Author award. During his PhD, he caught the stock market bug and moved to the financial industry. He has held positions in research and market risk analysis for the energy trading operations of Duke Energy and NewPower Holdings. He also earned a part-time MBA from the University of Houston and is a Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) charter holder. He currently works as a portfolio manager for a hedge fund in Salt Lake City, Utah.

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Title: Superconducting Quarks

Date: Friday, December 2, 2005
Time: 4 p.m.
Room: 205 Currens Hall
Prof. Mark Alford, Washington University in St. Louis 

Abstract
This talk is about the densest predicted state of matter---color-superconducting quark matter. A color superconductor is very different from an "ordinary" electrical superconductor: it occurs at much higher density and has a much richer phase structure because quarks come in many varieties. This form of matter may well exist in the core of neutron stars, and the search for signatures of its presence is currently proceeding. I will give an accessible review of the features of color-superconducting quark matter, and discuss some ideas for finding it in nature.

About the Speaker
Mark G. Alford is Professor of Physics at Washington University, St. Louis.  Prior to coming to Washington University in 2003, Prof. Alford held faculty positions at University of Glasgow and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. From 1995 to 98 he was a member of Princeton Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton. He earned his MS and PhD degrees from Harvard University. His undergraduate degree was from Oxford University.  He has held positions at Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara and the Laboratory of Nuclear Studies, Cornell University. Prof. Alford's research interests center on Quantum ChromoDynamics (QCD), the theory of the strong interaction. Currently he is working on the properties of quark matter.

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Title: Secrets of Good Light Management: Slow, Fast and Stored Light in a Glass Cell

Date: Monday, December 5, 2005
Time: 4 p.m.
Room: 205 Currens Hall
Dr. Irina Novikova, Harvard Smithsonian Center

Abstract
Quantum control is one of the most exciting and rapidly develooping areas of modern physics. I will describe how we can use one laser beam to control optical properties of atomic vapor containing in a glass cell. For example, it is possible to change this cell from being completely opaque to completely transparent. Such system also allows control over the group velocity of light pulse propagating inside a vapor cell in a wide range: from 300000000 m/s to 30 m/s and lower. Or the group velocity of a light pulse can become superluminal or even negative! Plus, we can reversible map the information about a light pulse into a collective quantum state of atoms, then stored inside the cell for some time, and finally recreate it in its original form.  I will show the role of these effects in the development of quantum computation and information, and in precision measurements.

About the Speaker
Dr. Irina Novikova obtained her Ph. D in 2003 from Texas A&M  University. Currently, she holds a postdoctoral position at Harvard-Smithsonian  Center for Astrophysics, where she collaborates with the group of Dr. Ronald Walsworth on the optimization of slow and stored light in atomic ensembles. In her still young career Dr. Novikova has already a distinguished record of awards in research and teaching.

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Title: Formation of Electron "Storage Rings" Around Carbon Nanotubes

Date: Thursday, December 8, 2005
Time:
4 p.m.
Room:
205 Currens Hall
Dr. Mikhail Zamkov, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Abstract
Using two-color photoelectron emission we can populate and subsequently observe the special group of electronic states with wave functions enclosing a carbon nanotube. These cylindrical “electronic rings” constitute a new class of extended Rydberg or image states due to their quantized angular motion. The electron rotation about the axis of the nanotube gives rise to a centrifugal force that virtually detaches the electron charge-cloud from the tube's body. By experiencing the lattice structure parallel to the tube's axis these rings can act as powerful scanning probes of nanotube electronic properties.
IS A MULTI WALLED NANOTUBE ONE-DIMENSIONAL? Despite the structural similarity between the single and multi walled nanotubes (SWNTs and MWNTs), the nature of electron transport in these systems was found to be fundamentally different. In contrast to a SWNT, where conduction electrons are constrained to interact in a strictly one-dimensional manner (Luttinger-liquid system), electron excitations in a MWNT exhibit a distinct multi-dimensional Fermi-liquid behavior. The latter was demonstrated experimentally by comparing the femptosecond decay dynamics of electrons excited into different states of MWNTs. The observed temporal evolution provides strong evidence that long-range e-e interaction along the tube vanishes due to screening, indicating that multi-dimensional nature of charge propagation should be invoked in modeling electronic properties of MWNTs.

About the Speaker
Dr. Zamkov obtained his Ph.D. in AMO Physics in 2003 from the J. R. MacDonald Lab at Kansas State University and has held postdoctoral appointments at J. R. MacDonald Lab, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Currently, he collaborates with the group of Prof. Dana Dlott at UIUC working on the building of a femtosecond infrared transient absorption apparatus. Dr. Zamkov has an impressive record of publications for his still young professional career, as well as an outstanding teaching instructor award.  

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Title: Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy: from Fundamental Research to Commercial Reality

Date: Monday, December 12, 2005
Time:
4 p.m.
Room:
205 Currens Hall
Dr. Chuji Wang, Diagnostic Instrumentation Laboratory (DIAL), Mississippi State University

Abstract
Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (CRDS), a newly emerged laser absorption spectral technique, featured with ultra-high sensitivity and selectivity, has been widely employed in atomic and molecular spectroscopic studies. Due to its novel optical approaches, this technique readily offers more than 10,000-fold better detection sensitivity than conventional absorption spectral techniques.  This feature allows us to observe the extremely weak or even forbidden spectral transitions of hundreds of molecules and enables us to develop instrumentation capable of detecting atoms/molecules at a level of parts-per-billion to parts-per-trillion. In this colloquium, we will present the basic concept of CRDS, briefly review our recent research efforts in the real applications ranging from environmental monitoring, medical diagnostics, to optical fiber remote sensing, and discuss future developments.

About the Speaker
Dr. Wang received his Ph.D. in 1998 from the University of Science and Technology of China and has held postdoctoral positions at SUNY-ESF and at the Diagnostic Instrumentation Laboratory (DIAL) of Mississippi State University. Since 2002 Dr. Wang has been an Assistant Research Professor at DIAL and an Adjunct Assistant Professor of the dept. of physics of MSU. He has published over 49 papers and has an impressive record of major research grants. His achievement in developing a diabetes test device made headlines in newspapers as USA Today and New York Times.

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Title: Gravity, Precision Measurements and Squeezed States of Light

Date: Friday, December 16, 2005
Time:
2 p.m.
Room:
202 Currens Hall
Dr. Eugeniy Mikhailov, LIGO Laboratory, MIT

Abstract
I will review the current status of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO), physics behind, current sensitivity limits, and future upgrades. Also I will show how use of quantum optics and squeezed states of light can improve sensitivity of the gravitational-wave antenna beyond standard quantum limit.

About the Speaker
Dr. Eugeniy Mikhailov obtained his Ph. D in 2003 from Texas A&M University. Currently, he holds a postdoctoral position at the LIGO Laboratory at MIT, where he collaborates with the quantum measurement group of Dr. Nergis Mavalvala on the development of a stable, controllable low frequency vacuum squeezed source.  Dr. Mikhailov has an excellent record of publication, as well as experience in teaching and guiding undergraduate and graduate students.