Undergraduate Catalog

Earth, Atmospheric, and Geographic Information Sciences

Chairperson: Dr. Samuel Thompson
Office: Tillman Hall 312
Telephone: (309) 298-1648; Fax: (309) 298-3003
E-mail: eagis@wiu.edu
Website: wiu.edu/eagis

Program Offerings and Locations:

  • Bachelor of Science in Geography and Geographic Information Science: Macomb, OnlineΔ
  • Bachelor of Science in Geology: Macomb
  • Bachelor of Science in Meteorology: Macomb
  • Minor in Geographic Information Systems: Macomb
  • Minor in Geography: Macomb, Online
  • Minor in Geology: Macomb
  • Minor in Weather and Climate: Macomb

Δ See note in Degree Programs section.

Faculty: S. W. Bennett, Buker, Choi, Deng, George, Greene, Hegna, Herman, Kang, Liang, Mayborn, Melim, Merrett, Romano, Sutton, Thompson.

Adjunct Instructor: S. C. Bennett.

Geography

Geography is concerned with interpreting and explaining the occurrence, distribution, and interrelationships of the physical and human patterns that may be discerned on the earth’s surface. These constantly changing physical and human landscapes challenge our students to provide continuing interpretation of the world from the spatial point of view. With the addition of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), our students are able to understand spatial data structures and computational applications used to capture, analyze, and display geographic information. Our students may pursue an option in either General Geography (physical, human, urban, and regional planning) or Geospatial Science (Geographic Information Systems, Remote Sensing, and GPS).

Career opportunities are found in both public and private sectors. Most notables include disaster response companies, transportation firms, land use planning agencies, GIS-related professions, historic preservations firms, construction companies, real estate firms, international business, location analysis firms, architectural firms, and wind energy/sustainable energy companies.

Geology

Geology is the study of theory and practice of scientific knowledge pertaining to the Earth: its morphology and environment, materials and processes, origin, and history; i.e., the complex physical, chemical, and biological interactions which have shaped the planet’s evolution. We stress undergraduate program breadth as a means of maximizing the opportunities for our undergraduates to select from a wide variety of postgraduate study or career options. Besides providing a broad theoretical knowledge base, we stress training in practical applications, independence of thought, and the development of problem-solving skills.

Career opportunities are found in both public and private sectors. Our graduates find industrial or governmental jobs in environment and engineering, oil, mining; many of them enroll in graduate programs at other universities.

Meteorology

Meteorology is the study of the physical characteristics of the lower atmosphere and the processes that are responsible for generating the weather. Students who complete the major are exposed to concepts, methodologies, and practical applications related to weather analysis and forecasting, as well as numerous environmental applications. Meteorology students use specialized equipment including instrumentation and computer applications associated with weather observations, weather radar, and remotely-sensed information.

Career opportunities are found in both public and private sectors, as well as in teaching. Among government agencies employing geographers or meteorologists are the Defense Mapping Agency, Environmental Protection Agency, Central Intelligence Agency, Bureau of the Census, National Weather Service, Army Corps of Engineers, and state, regional, and local planning agencies. Private employers include economic and environmental consulting firms, mapping and aerial survey companies, meteorological and climatological consulting firms, and environmental engineering firms.

GradTrac is available to Geography and Geographic Information Science majors, Geology majors, and Meteorology majors. See more information about GradTrac.

Honors Curriculum—Academically qualified students in this department are encouraged to complete an honors curriculum in University Honors, Departmental Honors, or General Honors. All Honors students must complete the one-hour honors colloquium (G H 299). General Honors includes General Honors coursework. Departmental Honors includes honors work in the major. University Honors combines Departmental and General Honors. For more information about honors curricula see the Centennial Honors College page of the catalog or visit the Centennial Honors College website at wiu.edu/Honors.

Integrated Baccalaureate and Master’s Degree Program—An integrated baccalaureate and master’s degree program is available for the Bachelor of Science in Geography and Geographic Information Science: Master of Arts in Geography. An integrated baccalaureate and master’s degree program is available for the Bachelor of Science in Meteorology: Master of Arts in Geography. An integrated degree program provides the opportunity for outstanding undergraduates to earn both degrees in five years. Please refer to the Graduate Studies catalog for details about the integrated program.

Degree Programs

Bachelor of Science—Geography and Geographic Information ScienceΔ

All students seeking the Bachelor of Science in Geography and Geographic Information Science must complete I, II, III, IV, and V below, and the foreign language/global issues requirement for the major#. The minimum semester hour requirement for the baccalaureate degree is 120 s.h.

  1. University General Education and College of Arts and Sciences Curriculum Requirements: 55 s.h.
  2. Core Courses: 12 s.h.
    GEOG 301, 405†; GIS 202, 405
  3. Options of Study (select A or B): : 37 s.h.
    1. General Geography
      1. Choose one of: GEOG 100 or 110: 3 s.h.
      2. Choose one of: GEOG 121 or METR 120: 4 s.h.
      3. Choose three courses (200 level and above) from the Physical group and two courses from the Human group
        OR
        Choose three courses (200 level and above) from the Human group and two courses from the Physical group: 15 s.h.
      4. Choose one course from the Geospatial group: 3 s.h.
      5. Choose three of the following: 9 s.h.
        GEOG 341, 430, 440, 445, 458, 466, 497; GEOL 380, 420; METR 220, 300, 337, 432
      6. Open Electives: 3 s.h.
    2. Geospatial Science
      1. GIS 309, 402, 403, 404, 410: 15 s.h.
      2. GIS 407 or 408: 3 s.h.
      3. Choose three from the following courses: : 9 s.h.
        CS 114, 214; GEOG 341, 430, 440, 445, 466, 497, 499; GIS 201; GIS 407 or 408
      4. Open Electives: 10 s.h.
  4. Any Minor: 16 s.h.

Note: Students interested in Meteorology should see the Meteorology advisor about additional courses.

Δ This major is available online with the selection of designated courses. Please contact advisor for details.

# The foreign language/global issues graduation requirement may be fulfilled by successfully completing one of the following: 1) a designated foreign language requirement [see Foreign Language/Global Issues Requirement]; 2) a General Education global issues course; 3) any major’s discipline-specific global issues course; or 4) an approved Study Abroad program.

† GEOG 405 fulfills the Writing Instruction in the Disciplines (WID) graduation requirement.

Bachelor of Science—Geology

All students seeking the Bachelor of Science in Geology must complete I, II, and III.A or III.B below, and the foreign language/global issues requirement for the major#. The minimum semester hour requirement for the baccalaureate degree is 120 s.h.

  1. University General Education and College of Arts and Sciences Curriculum Requirements: 55 s.h.
  2. Core Courses: 35 s.h.
    GEOL 110*, 112*, 200, 301, 310, 320†, 330, 340†, 361, 362
  3. Options of Study (select A or B)
    1. Geology
      1. Departmental Electives: 1–3 s.h.
      2. Any Minor: 16–20 s.h.
      3. Other
        1. CHEM 201* and 202*: 8 s.h.
        2. MATH 133* and one of these choices:
          1. MATH 134*; or
          2. CS 114; or
          3. STAT 171*: 7–8 s.h.
        3. One of these choices:
          1. BOT 200* and ZOOL 200*; or
          2. PHYS 124 and 125; or
          3. PHYS 211* and 212: 8–10 s.h.
        4. Foreign language and computer programming are strongly recommended.
          For students interested in pursuing a career in the field of environmental/hydrogeology, the following elective course is strongly recommended: GEOL 380.
          Other recommended courses are: GEOL 375 and 421.
    2. Paleontology
      1. Directed Electives: BOT 200* or ZOOL 200*: 4 s.h.
      2. Minor in Botany or Zoology: 17 s.h.
      3. Open Electives: 0–2 s.h.
        Suggested courses: BIOL 312, 459; ZOOL 321, 325; ANTH 310, 417; GEOL 420
      4. Other: 23–26 s.h.
        1. MATH 133*
        2. STAT 171* or MATH 134*
        3. CHEM 201*
        4. CHEM 202*
        5. PHYS 124 or PHYS 211*
        6. PHYS 125 or PHYS 212

# The foreign language/global issues graduation requirement may be fulfilled by successfully completing one of the following: 1) a designated foreign language requirement [see Foreign Language/Global Issues Requirement]; 2) a General Education global issues course; 3) any major’s discipline-specific global issues course; or 4) an approved Study Abroad program.

* 10–19 s.h. may count toward the University General Education requirement for the Geology option and 16 s.h. for the Paleontology option.

† GEOL 320 and GEOL 340 fulfill the Writing Instruction in the Disciplines (WID) graduation requirement.

Bachelor of Science—Meteorology

All students seeking the Bachelor of Science in Meteorology must complete I, II, III, IV, and V below, and the foreign language/global issues requirement for the major#. The minimum semester hour requirement for the baccalaureate degree is 120 s.h.

  1. University General Education and College of Arts and Sciences Curriculum Requirements (including MATH 133, MATH 134, and PHYS 211): 55 s.h.
  2. Core Courses: 29 s.h.
    GEOG 301, 405†; METR 120, 322, 327, 329, 422, 429, 432
  3. Directed Electives: 13 s.h.
    Choose a minimum of 13 s.h. from: GEOG 430, 497, 499; METR 220, 300, 333, 337, 425; MATH 333; PHYS 212
  4. Other Required Courses: 7–8 s.h.
    1. MATH 231: 4 s.h.
    2. Select one from: ACCT 201, AGRN 278, CHEM 201, CS 114, GIS 403, GEOL 115, GEOL 380, or PHYS 354: 3–4 s.h.
  5. Any Minor: 16–24 s.h.

# The foreign language/global issues graduation requirement may be fulfilled by successfully completing one of the following: 1) a designated foreign language requirement [see Foreign Language/Global Issues Requirement]; 2) a General Education global issues course; 3) any major’s discipline-specific global issues course; or 4) an approved Study Abroad program.

† GEOG 405 fulfills the Writing Instruction in the Disciplines (WID) graduation requirement.

Minors

Minor in Geography: 18–21 s.h.
  1. Any three courses selected from: GEOG 100, 110, 121; GIS 108; METR 120: 10–12 s.h.
  2. Upper division electives to be approved by the advisor: 8–9 s.h.

Note: This minor is not open to students majoring in Geography and Geographic Information Science.

Minor in Geographic Information Systems: 19–20 s.h.
  1. GIS 202 and 405: 7 s.h.
  2. GIS 407 or 408: 3 s.h.
  3. Choose 3 of the following courses: : 9–10 s.h.
    GIS 108, 201, 309, 402, 403, 404, 407, 408, 410

Note: This minor is not open to students majoring in Geography and Geographic Information Science.

Minor in Geology: 18 s.h.
  1. GEOL 110, 112: 8 s.h.
  2. Departmental Electives chosen from among: 10 s.h.
    GEOL 200, 301, 310, 320, 330, 340, 375, 380, 420, 421
Minor in Weather and Climate: 16–17 s.h.
  1. METR 120, 220, 327, 337: 13 s.h.
  2. Choose one of the following: GEOG 301, 430; METR 300, 322, 329, 333, 432: 3–4 s.h.

Course Descriptions

GEOGRAPHY (GEOG)
(Physical)

121 Planet Earth: Surface Processes and Interactions. (4) (General Education/Natural Sciences) The interplay between landforms, soils, water, climate, and life forms (including humans) on Earth’s surface, and how these interact to shape the surface of Planet Earth. It also covers the distribution of landforms in the U.S. and other countries. Laboratory. IAI: P1 905L.

182 (Cross-listed with PHYS 182) Integrated Science II. (4) (General Education/Natural Sciences) A laboratory course in interdisciplinary science with an emphasis on the Earth’s place in the physical universe. Topics address the nature of matter and energy and their impact on the Earth’s weather and climate. (Integrated Science I is BIOL/GEOL 181) Not open to students with credit in PHYS 182. Prerequisite: MATH 100. 3 hrs. lect.; 2 hrs. lab.

421 Physiography. (3) Characteristics and distribution of landforms and underlying structures of the U.S. Prerequisites: GEOG 121 and METR 120, or GEOL 110 and 112.

423 River Water Resources. (3) An examination of river water resources at the global scale. Case studies of river basins from different countries will be used to understand past and present issues related to their management, ecological problems, and restoration initiatives. Prerequisite: Lower division natural science course with a lab, or consent of instructor.

426 (Cross-listed with BIOL 426) Conservation and Management of Natural Resources. (3) Problems in the conservation and management of natural resources including soil, water, rangeland, forest, wildlife, air, and energy resources. Special attention to resource problems of the United States. Not open to students with credit in BIOL 426. Prerequisites: GEOG 121 and METR 120, or consent of instructor.

430 Natural Hazards. (3) Examination of the causes, development, and impact of different natural hazards around the world. Hazards range from volcanoes and earthquakes to hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, and fires. Understanding community responses to particular disasters, including planning, first responses, and lessons learned.

459 (Cross-listed with BIOL 459) Biogeography. (3) Study of the geographical distributions of organisms, the evolutionary and ecological processes underlying the patterns of distribution, and the role of biogeography in biological conservation. Not open to students with credit in BIOL 459. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better), or permission of instructor.

(Human)

100 Introduction to Human Geography. (3) (General Education/Social Sciences) (Global Issues) Analysis of the spatial patterns of population, population trends, human migrations, ecological processes, and the impact of people on the natural environment. IAI: S4 900N.

251 Principles of Urban and Regional Planning. (3) (General Education/Social Sciences) Examines contemporary planning processes with an emphasis upon utopian planning precedents, frameworks and mechanisms for planning, and comprehensive planning and implementation.

341 Economic Geography. (3) The production and distribution of the world's commodities and their regional aspects. The reproductive, extractive, and manufacturing industries and their natural and cultural relationships. Prerequisite: GEOG 100 or consent of instructor.

352 Planning Applications. (3) Introduces basic applications of urban and regional planning processes to understand land development, including the use of GIS analysis, zoning, form-based coding, and future land use planning. It involves research projects to understand these processes. Prerequisites: GEOG 251 or consent of instructor.

440 Connections: A Geography of Transportation. (3) Introduction to transport systems at various geographic scales in society, and the concepts, methods, and application areas of Transport Geography. Prerequisite: GEOG 301 and GIS 202; or consent of instructor.

443 Population Geography. (3) Description and spatial analysis of population data and of fertility, mortality, and migration of the human population. Some emphasis given to migration; some to the United States. Prerequisites: two courses in Geography or consent of instructor.

445 Urban Geography. (3) An analysis of the nature, distribution, and principal functions of urban settlements and supporting areas. Prerequisites: two courses in Geography or consent of instructor.

448 Introduction to Urban and Regional Planning. (3) An examination of contemporary planning processes. Emphasis upon utopian planning precedents, frameworks and mechanisms for planning, and comprehensive planning and implementation. Prerequisite: POLS 470, or its equivalent, or consent of instructor.

457 Historic Preservation Planning. (3) Explores the practice and regulation of historic preservation planning. Students will identify and interpret best practices for the preservation and interpretation of historic resources. Focus will be on U.S. resources with a brief introduction of international conservation practices. Prerequisites: GEOG 251 or consent of instructor.

458 Planning Methods. (3) Introduces commonly used analytic techniques in the practice of urban and regional planning. Consideration is given to techniques and data sources to support urban development. Prerequisite: GEOG 251 or consent of instructor.

(Regional)

110 World Regional Geography. (3) (General Education/Social Sciences or Multicultural Studies) (Global Issues) A survey of the world’s regions emphasizing the spatial arrangements of resources, population, institutions, economic activities, and cultural landscapes, and their significance for distinctive regional problems. IAI: S4 900N.

466 (GEOG 466—Africa is cross-listed with AAS 466) World Regions. (3, repeatable for different regional subtitles to 9) (Global Issues) Analysis of the physical and cultural geography of a major world region chosen from the following: Latin America, Russia, Monsoon Asia, Europe, Africa, Middle America, South America, and Asia. Not open to students with credit for AAS 466. Prerequisite: two courses in Geography or consent of instructor.

(Theory, Methods and Research)

301 Introduction to Quantitative Geography. (3) An introduction to quantitative methods used by geographers to analyze and interpret geographic data and to solve geographic problems. Topics include hypothesis formulation and testing, sampling strategies, correlation, regression, and spatial patterns. Prerequisite: two courses in Geography, MATH 128 or high school algebra, or consent of instructor. 2 hrs. lect.; 2 hrs. lab.

405 Senior Thesis Capstone Course. (2) Writing Instruction in the Disciplines (WID) course. Prerequisites: ENG 280, Geography or Meteorology major, and senior status.

450 Geography Workshop. (1) General workshop of a variety of geographic topics. Discussions and creative activities are emphasized in a supportive environment. Not open to students with credit in GEOG 322 or METR 322. Prerequisite: elementary algebra or equivalent. Graded S/U only.

495 Honors Thesis. (3) Prerequisite: permission of department chair.

497 Internship in Applied Geography. (1–3, repeatable to 3) Assignment as an undergraduate assistant in public, private, or university agencies engaged in planning, meteorology, environmental assessments, cartography, etc. Only 3 s.h. may be applied to minimum degree requirements. Prerequisite: permission of department chair. Graded S/U only.

498 Individualized Studies. (1–3) This course is available to students who are interested in the study of topics which are not currently a part of the curriculum. The students should consult their advisor or the department chair about the procedure which is to be followed. Prerequisite: permission of department chair.

499 Special Problems in Geography (Research). (1–6, repeatable to 6) Prerequisites: senior standing and consent of instructor.

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SCIENCE (GIS)

108 (Formerly GEOG 108) Digital Earth. (4) (General Education/Natural Sciences) An introduction to various applications of mapping and navigational technology (Google Earth, photography, GIS, and GPS) used in daily life. This course involves student presentations and projects focused on basic principles and applications of this technology.

201 (Formerly GEOG 209) GIS Data Acquisition. (3) This course covers principles of geospatial data concepts. These concepts include field and office data collection using applications of GPS and common GIS software, digitizing, and coordinate geometry (COGO). This course also includes internet download techniques and basic map making. 2 hrs. lect.; 2 hrs. lab.

202 (Formerly GEOG 202) Principles of GIS. (4) Introduction to the principles of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), including GIS representation of the real world; GIS concepts, data, methods, tools, and their integration for location-related decision making; and GIS procedure for representation, analysis, and presentation.

309 (Formerly GEOG 309) GIS Data Integration. (3) This course covers core principles of geographic information, GIS data manipulation skills, common GIS data sets together with lab/project experiences, and GIS data evaluation. It strengthens the GIS “data” foundation for future GIS specialists. Prerequisite: GIS 201 or permission of instructor. 2 hrs. lect.; 2 hrs. lab.

402 (Formerly GEOG 402) Advanced Cartography. (3) Advanced map compilation; theory and practice of cartographic design emphasizing thematic mapping, geovisualization, and map communication using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Prerequisite: GIS 202 or consent of instructor. 2 hrs. lect.; 2 hrs. lab.

403 (Formerly GEOG 403) Advanced Remote Sensing. (3) Digital image processing techniques for thematic information extraction from remotely-sensed data for environmental applications. Laboratory. Prerequisites: GIS 202 or consent of instructor.

404 (Formerly GEOG 406) Advanced Quantitative Methods and Applications in GIS. (3) Students will learn, examine, and review how advanced GIS quantitative methods are used to measure spatial distribution patterns of geographical features, and analyze relationships between geographical phenomena. Prerequisites: GEOG 301 and GIS 202; or consent of instructor.

405 (Formerly GEOG 409) Advanced GIS Spatial Analysis. (3) Thorough and systematic examination of GIS analytical/modeling methods. Students will be trained to translate real-world problems into GIS data, tools, maps, new findings, and reports. Laboratory. Prerequisites: GIS 201 or 202 or equivalent.

407 (Formerly GEOG 407) Social Applications of GIS. (3) Examination of GIS concepts and skills in studying the geospatial characteristics of social phenomena, such as population geography, geographic segregation of neighborhoods, and spatial patterns of crimes. Practice of GIS applications in sociodemographic issues through lab exercises and course project. Prerequisite: GIS 202 or consent of instructor. 2 hrs. lect.; 2 hrs. lab.

408 (Formerly GEOG 408) Environmental Applications of GIS. (3) GIS modeling of the biophysical environment, including water flow simulation, mapping of soils and climates, habitat delineation, and soil erosion modeling. Review of GIS methods, literature, and practice of environmental analysis in labs and project. Prerequisites: GIS 202; and GEOG 301 or STAT 171 or equivalent.

410 (Formerly GEOG 410) Applied GIScience. (3) Examination of real-world applications of GIS, remote sensing, and GPS, including issues in the associated literature and principles. Fostering ideas and practicing skills of designing and completing GIScience projects scientifically. Prerequisite: GIS 202 and 405; or consent of instructor. 2 hrs. lect.; 2 hrs. lab.

GEOLOGY (GEOL)

110 Our Changing Earth. (4) (General Education/Natural Sciences) The study of the earth, its composition, structure, landscape development, internal processes, origin, and evolution. Laboratory includes introduction to minerals, rocks, and maps. No prerequisites. 3 hrs. lect.; 2 hrs. lab. IAI: P1 907L.

112 History of the Earth. (4) (General Education/Natural Sciences) Physical and biological history of the earth (North America emphasis). Origin of continents, mountains, oceans, etc.; evolution of plants and animals. No prerequisites. 3 hrs. lect.; 2 hrs. lab. IAI: P1 907L.

113 Energy and Earth Resources. (3) (General Education/Natural Sciences) Introduction to energy, water, soil, and mineral resources and the impact of their use on the environment. Does not count toward major or minor in Geology. No prerequisite.

115 Oceanography. (3) (General Education/Natural Sciences) History of ocean exploration, origin and nature of ocean basins, composition and circulation of ocean water, modern developments in oceanography, man and the oceans. Does not count toward major or minor in Geology. No prerequisite.

181 (Cross-listed with BIOL 181) Integrated Science I. (4) (General Education/Natural Sciences) A laboratory course in interdisciplinary science with an emphasis on the nature and evolution of life and Earth. Topics include ecology, natural resources, formation of Earth materials, Earth processes, nutrient cycling, cell biology, genetics, and evolution. (Integrated Science II is PHYS/GEOG 182) Not open to students with credit in BIOL 181. Prerequisite: MATH 099N.

200 Mineralogy. (4) Introduction to crystallography, origin, classification, identification, and occurrence of common minerals. Prerequisite: GEOL 110 or GEOG 121. Student should have basic knowledge of high school or introductory college chemistry. 3 hrs. lect.; 2 hrs. lab.

301 Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. (3) Origin, texture, mineralogy, mode of emplacement, and alteration of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Phase rule and phase diagrams. Prerequisite: GEOL 200. 2 hrs. lect.; 2 hrs. lab.

310 Geologic Field Methods. (2) Topographic and geologic mapping methods; measurement and description of stratigraphic sections; field identification of rocks and soils; use of Brunton compass, laser transit, GPS, and GIS software. Prerequisite: GEOL 110 or 112. 1 hr. lect.; 4 hrs. lab. First 10 weeks.

320 Structural Geology. (4) Physical properties of rocks, theories of flow and fracture, description of structural features, and origin of rock deformation. Geometric and stereographic diagrams. Interpretation of patterns. Writing Instruction in the Disciplines (WID) course. Prerequisites: GEOL 110 and high school or college trigonometry; ENG 280. Possible field trip. 3 hrs. lect.; 2 hrs. lab.

330 Paleontology. (4) Survey of major groups of fossil-forming organisms, emphasizing invertebrates, their preservation, morphology, ecology, taxonomy, and methods used in their study. Prerequisite: GEOL 112 or a course in basic Biology or consent of instructor. 3 hrs. lect.; 2 hrs. lab.

340 Stratigraphy and Sedimentology. (4) Origin and identification of sedimentary rocks, depositional environments, sedimentary processes, principles of stratigraphy. Writing Instruction in the Disciplines (WID) course. Prerequisites: GEOL 110, GEOL 112, and ENG 280, or permission of instructor. Required field trip. 3 hrs. lect.; 2 hrs. lab.

361, 362 Summer Field Camp. (3–6 each, not repeatable) Measurement of stratigraphic and structural sections, geological field mapping, and preparation of reports. Prerequisites: GEOL 200, 301, 310, 320, 340, or consent of instructor. At field station in South Dakota.

375 Environmental Geology. (3) Application of geology to environmental problems. Land resource planning, solid and liquid waste disposal, mining, foundations structures, geologic hazards, mineral and energy resources. Prerequisite: GEOL 110.

380 Hydrogeology. (4) Study of water’s interaction with geologic materials; principles of groundwater flow; aquifer testing; groundwater flow modeling programs; water chemistry and pollutants. Many labs are conducted in the field. Prerequisite: GEOL 110 or GEOG 121. 3 hrs. lect.; 2 hrs. lab.

418 (Cross-listed with BIOL/CHEM/PHYS 418) Introduction to Scanning Electron Microscopy. (3) The course focuses on capabilities and operation of scanning electron microscopes with emphasis on beam-material interactions, sample preparation, image acquisition and analysis, and X-ray measurements with applications in Biology, Chemistry, Geology, and Physics. Not open to students with credit in BIOL/CHEM/PHYS 418. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better), or CHEM 202, or MICR 200 (C grade or better), or PHYS 125, or PHYS 212, or ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); or permission of instructor. 2 hrs. lect.; 2 hrs. lab.

420 Geomorphology. (3) Advanced study of the landscape involving processes, geologic structure, and time. Map and air photo interpretation. Prerequisite: GEOL 110 or GEOG 121. Field trips. 2 hrs. lect.; 2 hrs. lab.

421 Glacial Geology. (3) Origin and classification of glacial sediments and land forms, periglacial features; Pleistocene soils; stratigraphy and sedimentology of Pleistocene deposits. Prerequisite: GEOL 110. Field trip. 2 hrs. lect.; 2 hrs. lab.

460 Special Problems in Geology and Geophysics. (1–5, repeatable to 5) Research problems. Does not count toward minor in Geology. Prerequisite: consent of instructor prior to registration.

461 Geologic Field Trips. (1–4, repeatable to 4) Field trips in geology or geophysics. Does not fulfill requirement for a minor in Geology. Prerequisite: GEOL 110, or GEOL 112, or concurrent registration in these courses and consent of instructor.

462 Honors Research Thesis. (2–3, repeatable to 3 to complete project) Research problems by agreement of student and advisory committee. Required: written proposal, final written report, and oral report. Prerequisites: GPA of 3.40 overall and 3.20 in Geology, completed 26 s.h. in Geology, junior or senior standing, and approval of advisory committee.

495 Geology Internship. (1–6, repeatable to 6) Credit for geologic work experience in a business, governmental, or research organization. Internship project report required. Prerequisites: 20 s.h. of Geology courses, junior or senior standing in Geology, and approval of department chairperson. Graded S/U only.

METEOROLOGY (METR)

120 (Formerly GEOG 120) Introduction to Weather and Climate. (4) (General Education/Natural Sciences) Concepts and processes that govern weather and climate systems: solar energy distribution and seasons, world climates, temperature, humidity, wind and force balances, clouds and precipitation, stability, fronts, cyclones, and severe weather (including tornadoes, hurricanes, etc.). Laboratory. IAI: P1 905L.

220 (Formerly GEOG 220) Severe and Unusual Weather. (3) Study of severe weather causes and impacts on local communities. Apply current technologies and data sources to analyze winter weather events (blizzards, ice storms, etc.) and warm season events (thunderstorms, tornadoes, hail, lightning, floods, hurricanes). Prerequisite: METR 120.

300 (Formerly GEOG 300) Weather Instruments. (3) A survey of the instruments and reporting techniques associated with standard weather observations, which will enable students to identify meteorological phenomena and report their occurrences in an understandable format. Prerequisites: METR 120 and MATH 133. 2 hrs. lect.; 2 hrs. lab.

322 (Formerly GEOG 322) Synoptic Meteorology I. (4) Study of large-scale (synoptic) atmospheric circulations and the relationship between upper air circulation, vertical motion, and surface development, particularly cyclogenesis. Emphasis on weather analysis through observational data and computer models. Prerequisite: METR 120 and MATH 133.

327 (Formerly GEOG 327) Environmental Climatology. (3) This course deals with the mechanisms of heat flow, radiation exchanges, and water vapor flux and with the effects of climate on organisms, ecosystems, and human societies as well as changes in global environment. Prerequisite: METR 120 or consent of instructor.

329 (Formerly GEOG 329) Dynamic Meteorology I. (3) Examination of atmospheric thermodynamics and cloud processes, including hydrostatic equilibrium, equation of state, atmospheric moisture, adiabatic processes, the use of thermodynamic charts, precipitation development, and lightning mechanisms. Prerequisites: METR 322 and MATH 134.

333 (Formerly GEOG 333) Meteorological Data Analysis. (3) Various meteorological data analysis software packages will be used to enhance synoptic/dynamics concepts learned in concurrent courses. These tools will be used to produce and present an analysis of a meteorological case study. Prerequisite or Corequisite: METR 322 or consent of instructor.

337 (Formerly GEOG 337) Understanding Climate Change. (3) This course introduces basic physical principles underlying climate change, time scales of climate change, the nature and the role of technology and computer models in the context of climate change research, and social and political dimensions of climate change. Prerequisite: METR 120 or consent of instructor.

422 (Formerly GEOG 422) Synoptic Meteorology II. (4) Quantitative treatment of dynamical and thermodynamical processes involved in synoptic meteorology. Evolution of fronts and cyclones, isentropic analysis, vertical cross sections, interpretation of satellite imagery and numerical model data, all in the context of theory and case studies. Prerequisite: METR 322 and MATH 134.

425 (Formerly GEOG 425) Satellite and Radar Meteorology. (3) The theoretical principles and application of satellites and radar in synoptic meteorology and climatology. Applications of satellite and radar imageries include clouds, wind, atmospheric water vapor, precipitation, and storm prediction. The course includes operational procedures fundamental to weather radar. Prerequisite: METR 322 or permission of instructor. 2 hrs. lect.; 2 hrs. lab.

429 (Formerly GEOG 429) Dynamic Meteorology II. (3) Examination of atmospheric fluid motion, including atmospheric kinematics, real and apparent forces, geostrophic and gradient winds, thermal winds, vorticity, quasi-geostrophy, and their application to numerical weather prediction. Prerequisites: GEOG 301; METR 322, 329; and MATH 231.

432 (Formerly GEOG 432) Physical Meteorology. (3) Examination of atmospheric radiation and chemistry, including optical effects, acoustical phenomena, tropospheric and stratospheric chemical processes, and how these disciplines combine to determine Earth’s radiative equilibrium. Prerequisite: METR 322 and MATH 133, or permission of instructor.