Top Navigation

Side Navigation

Biology
2013-2014

Admission | Courses | Program | Requirements |Certificate | Profile

Chairperson: Charles Lydeard
Graduate Committee Chairperson: Susan Romano
Office: Waggoner Hall 372
Telephone
: (309) 298-1546 Fax: (309) 298-2270
E-mail: biology@wiu.edu
Website: wiu.edu/biology
Location of Program Offering: Macomb, Quad Cities, Shedd Aquarium, Alice L. Kibbe Life Sciences Station

Graduate Faculty
Professors

  • Laura M. Barden-Gabbei, Ph.D., University of Maryland-College Park
  • Scott M. Holt, Ph.D., Iowa State University
  • Charles Lydeard, Ph.D., University of Alabama
  • Kenneth W. McCravy, Ph.D., University of Georgia
  • Richard Musser, Ph.D., University of Arkansas
  • Eric Ribbens, Ph.D., University of Connecticut
  • Michael A. Romano, Ph.D., Miami University-Ohio
  • Jeanette A. Thomas, Ph.D., University of Minnesota
  • Roger Viadero, Ph.D., West Virginia University

Associate Professors

  • Thomas H. Alton, Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • Jeffrey E. Engel, Ph.D., University of Iowa
  • Sean E. Jenkins, Ph.D., University of Missouri-Columbia
  • Shawn A. Meagher, Ph.D., University of Michigan
  • Susan T. Meiers, Ph.D., Louisiana State University
  • Brian D. Peer, Ph.D., University of Manitoba
  • Susan Peitzmeier Romano, Ph.D., Southern Illinois University-Carbondale
  • Timothy Spier, Ph.D., Southern Illinois University-Carbondale

Assistant Professors

  • Meshack Afitlhile, Ph.D., University of Kentucky
  • Christopher Jacques, Ph.D., South Dakota State University
  • Sue Hum-Musser, Ph.D., University of Arkansas
  • Andrea Porras-Alfaro, Ph.D., University of New Mexico

Program Description

The Department of Biological Sciences offers a graduate program leading to the Master of Science degree. Graduate students may choose to select their curriculum to focus on environmental biology, education, microbiology, plant biology, zoology, wildlife biology, or zoo and aquarium studies under the guidance of their adviser. Courses are offered at the Macomb campus, at the WIU–Quad Cities campus in Moline, Illinois, and at the Shedd Aquarium in Chicago. Additional field biology courses are taught during the summer session at the Alice L. Kibbe Life Sciences Station along the Mississippi River near Warsaw, Illinois, and at the Nahant Marsh in Davenport, Iowa.

The Master of Science in Biology prepares students for a broad spectrum of career opportunities in industry, with government agencies, for additional graduate work at other institutions, and for successful careers in education.

Admission Requirements

Applications for admission are accepted at anytime. Students selecting the biological sciences as a graduate major must have received a bachelor's degree with work in biological sciences recognized as adequate by the Departmental Graduate Committee. Departmental approval may be contingent upon the student making up undergraduate deficiencies. All incoming students are expected to have three semesters of chemistry (including organic or biochemistry) and two semesters each of the following: physics or geology (any sequence) and mathematics. Also required are three semesters of introductory biology (one each of zoology, botany, and microbiology), plus a semester each of genetics, ecology, and cell biology. Undergraduate deficiencies can be taken P/F but must be completed before graduation.

The department has no foreign language requirement for the Master of Science degree.

Although the Graduate Record Examination is not required, students are encouraged to submit scores for both the General Test and the Subject Test in biology prior to admission.

Acceptance to do graduate work in the department is dependent upon the following: a minimum GPA of 2.75 (unless waived by action of the Departmental Graduate Committee), or a GPA of 3.0 or higher for the last two undergraduate years, three letters of recommendation, and a written statement on student’s interests and career goals. Also, a student must have a faculty member agree to advise the student’s thesis or non-thesis project before the student can be admitted into the program.

Degree Requirements

The Master of Science in Biology can be earned by satisfying either the requirements of the Thesis Plan or the Non-Thesis Plan. The Thesis Plan is designed for students who are interested in research and/or wish to continue their education beyond the Master's Degree. The Non-Thesis Plan is recommended for students who want additional advanced training in the biological sciences, but do not have research-oriented career goals. Additional information concerning policies and procedures can be found in the Biology Graduate Handbook, available from the department.

Students must file a Degree Plan at the department level prior to the completion of 15 semester hours. No more than 50 percent of the graduate program may be earned at the 400G level.

All students must complete the minimum requirements of either the Thesis or Non‑Thesis Plans listed below.

I. Thesis Plan

A. Graduate Core: 9 s.h.

BIOL 501 Biometrics (3)
BIOL 502 Molecular Applications in Organismal Biology (3)
Or
BIOL 542 Molecular Biology of Genes (3)
BIOL 503 Biosystematics and Evolution (3)

B. Electives: 13 s.h.

Any 400G- or 500-level BIOL, BOT, MICR, ZOOL or approved nondepartmental or transfer courses. The maximum number of semester hours allowed from the following is: BIOL 570 Seminar (2), approved nondepartmental graduate courses (6), and approved transfer courses (9)

C. Thesis Related Courses (required): 10 s.h.

BIOL 576 Survey of Biological Literature (1)
BIOL 600 Thesis Research (A minimum of 6 s.h. are required. Additional hours may be required depending on the research project used for the student’s program.) (6)
BIOL 601 Thesis (3)

TOTAL PROGRAM: 32 s.h.

D. File thesis proposal and complete coursework.
E. Complete independent research and thesis.
F. When enrollment is on campus (Macomb), attend all departmental seminars.
G. Present seminar on thesis.
H. Pass an oral examination on thesis, specialization in biology, and general areas of biology (cell/molecular, organismal, population/community).


II. Non-Thesis Plan

A. Graduate Core: 9 s.h.

BIOL 501 Biometrics (3)
BIOL 502 Molecular Applications in Organismal Biology (3)
Or
BIOL 542 Molecular Biology of Genes (3)
BIOL 503 Biosystematics and Evolution (3)

B. Electives: 19 s.h.

Any 400G- or 500-level BIOL, BOT, MICR, ZOOL or approved nondepartmental or transfer courses. The maximum number of semester hours allowed from the following: BIOL 570 Seminar (2), approved nondepartmental graduate courses (6), and approved transfer courses (9); BIOL 600, Thesis Research, and BIOL 601, Thesis, cannot be used.

C. Advanced Project Related Courses: 4 s.h.

BIOL 576 Survey of Literature (1)
BIOL 577 Research Problems (3)

TOTAL PROGRAM: 32 s.h.

D. File non-thesis project proposal and complete course work.
E. Complete advanced biological project.
F. When enrollment is on campus (Macomb), attend all departmental seminars.
G. Present a seminar on an advanced biological project.
H. Pass an oral examination on advanced biological project, specialization in biology, and general areas of biology (cell/molecular, organismal, population/community).

Post-Baccalaureate Certificate Programs

The department offers post-baccalaureate certificates in Zoo and Aquarium Studies, and Environmental GIS.  Go to www.wiu.edu/graduate_studies/post_bacc_certificates for program details.

Course Descriptions

Biology (BIOL)

419G Organic Evolution. (3) A detailed study of the mechanisms of evolution. Field trip may be required. Prerequisites: BIOL 330 and 340; BOT 200 (C grade or better); ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); graduate standing in biology.

426G (cross-listed with GEOG 426G) Conservation and Management of Natural Resources. (3) Problems in the conservation and management of natural resources, including soil, water, rangeland, forest, wildlife, air, and energy resources. Special attention to resource problems of the United States. Prerequisites: Two courses in geography or permission of the instructor.

439G Methods of Teaching Secondary Science. (3) Study of biology teaching methods from the standpoints of theory and practice, curriculum objectives, materials, and evaluation. Included are demonstrations, discussions, lectures, classroom participation, and observations. Corequisite: EIS 303 or 592 (graduate level). Prerequisites: Permission of the instructor.

452G Biological Applications of GIS. (3) This course deals with biological problems examined using data acquisition and analytical methods from geographic information systems (GIS) and global positioning systems (GPS). Prerequisites: One biology course, and either GEOG 208 or GEOG 508.

453G Streams Ecology. (3) Structure and function in lotic ecosystems is emphasized in this course. Physical, chemical, and biotic factors used in stream classification will be examined. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); and either an ecology course or permission of the instructor.

454G Mississippi River Ecology. (3) A study of the structure and function of abiotic and biotic components of a major river system. Emphasis will be placed on understanding how components interact and are influenced by activities related to human interdiction. Prerequisites: One year of biology or permission of the instructor.

455G Mississippi River Ecology Laboratory. (1) Techniques used to study the large floodplain river ecosystem of the Mississippi River will be demonstrated and/or used by students to collect samples from its plant and animal communities. Prerequistes: BIOL 454 or concurrent registration in BIOL 454.

458G Plant-Animal Interactions. (3) Explores the co-evolutionary relationships of plants and animals. Lecture topics will include herbivory, pollination biology, and dispersal. Lab emphasis will be placed on research experiments that utilize chemical, behavioral, and molecular techniques and review of the scientific literature. Prerequisites: BIOL 330, BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better), or permission of the instructor.

459G (cross-listed with GEOG 459G) Biogeography. (3) Study of the geographical distributions of organisms, the evolutionary and ecological processes underlying the patterns of distribution, and the role of biogeography in biological conservation. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better), or permission of the instructor.

479G Tropical Ecology. (3) Introduction to tropical ecology. Includes a required field trip to several research stations in Costa Rica. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better), or permission of the instructor.

482G (cross-listed with CHEM 482G and PHYS 482G) Science in Context. (3) Interdisciplinary course designed for middle and high school sciences teachers as well as students pursuing secondary science teacher licensure. Students explore science as inquiry, the unifying principles of science, and the role of social contexts and ethics in science.

501 Biometrics. (3) Basic methods of experimental design and evaluation of biological data. Prerequisite: Graduate standing in biology.

502 Molecular Applications in Organismal Biology. (3) Molecular structure; molecular methods; applications of molecular analyses to ecology, evolution and conservation biology; reading and interpretation of primary literature. Prerequisite: Graduate standing in biology

503 Biosystematics and Evolution. (3) Philosophy of science, review of evolutionary theory, taxonomy, modern systematics, phylogenetics, macroevolution, and applications of phylogenetic systematics. Prerequisite: Graduate standing in biology.

542 Molecular Biology of Genes. (3) Structure and function of nucleic acids and proteins, gene structure, expression and regulation; genetic exchange and rearrangements; DNA replication; molecular cloning and recombinant DNA technology. Prerequisites: BIOL 330, 340; CHEM 332; or permission of the instructor.

550 Professional Workshop. (1–3, repeatable to 12)

570 Seminar. (1, repeatable) Topics in biological sciences. Graded S/U. Prerequisite: Graduate standing in biology.

576 Survey of the Biological Literature. (1) Scope and applications of the biological literature related to writing a thesis. Directed by adviser, Graded S/U. Prerequisite: Graduate standing in biology.

577 Research Problems. (1–3, repeatable to 3) Investigation may be conducted in any of the specialties represented by the staff. Most specialties are represented in the course offerings. Prerequisite: Permission of the department chairperson; graduate standing in biology.

581 Electron Microscopy. (3) Develops skills for fixation, embedment, sectioning, staining, viewing, and photographing of biological tissues with scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Other techniques in electron microscopy are discussed. Prerequisite: Graduate standing in biology.

583 Organizational Management in Zoos and Aquaria. (3) This course challenges future professionals in zoos and aquaria to contemplate the multiple disciplines and factors at work in this setting. Students will receive practical information and insight from seasoned professionals using real world examples and best practices from the zoo and aquarium industry. Topics range from personal development, staff and resource management, and the future of zoos and aquaria. Prerequisites: Acceptance in the post-baccalaureate certificate program in Zoo and Aquarium Studies.

584 Advanced Ecological Techniques. (3) This course provides instruction on the applications of techniques and analytical methods to the evaluation and restoration of terrestrial and aquatic communities, including data analysis specific to those techniques. Includes field experience. Prerequisite: BIOL 350 or equivalent, or permission of the instructor.

595 Graduate Internship. (1-12, repeatable) Practical experience in the biological sciences with an approved employer. Sixty contact hours per credit hour and a written report are required. Maximum of 3 semester hours may be applied to degree plan. Graded S/U. Prerequisites: Written proposal, permission of the department chair, and permission of the student’s research committee.

600 Thesis Research. (1–12, repeatable to 48) Research relating to a thesis topic. Graded S/U. Prerequisite: Graduate standing in biology.

601 Thesis. (3) Preparation of a thesis under direction of an adviser. Graded S/U.

Botany (BOT)

402G Field Mycology. (3) Identification, systematics, and ecology of macro‑fungi. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); graduate standing in biology.

410G Plant Systematics. (3) The basic systems, principles and methods of plant systematics stressing the identification and classification of Illinois vascular plants. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); graduate standing in biology.

423G Phycology. (3) Morphology, taxonomy, physiology, genetics, and ecology of the algae, particularly freshwater forms. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); graduate standing in biology.

430G Plant Physiology. (3) Physiological processes of plants as an interaction of structure, chemistry, physical characteristics, and environment. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better), and one year of chemistry; graduate standing in biology.

451G Plant Ecology. (3) Relationships of plants to their environment, community ecology and the use of quantitative methods to determine distribution. Field trip estimate: $25. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and 210 or 410, and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); graduate standing in biology.

452G Freshwater Biology. (3) Common freshwater organisms and some of their relationships to one another, to their environment, and to humans. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); graduate standing in biology.

455G Fire/Disturbance Ecology. (3) Using laboratory and lecture, this course examines the role of fire and other disturbances on the distribution and ecology of plants in natural environments. Opportunity for The Nature Conservancy’s prescribed burn certification will be available. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better), or permission of the instructor.

461G Plant Pathology. (3) Principles of phytopathology including causal agents, development, diagnosis, and control of plant diseases. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better), ZOOL 200 (C grade or better) and MICR 200 (C grade or better), or permission of the instructor.

462G Diseases of Trees and Shrubs. (3) Diagnosis, development, cycles, and control of major diseases in forestry and horticulture. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); graduate standing in biology.

463G (cross-listed with ANTH 463G) Ethnobotany. (4) A survey of how indigenous people use and classify plants in comparison to modern, scientific principles of botany and plant chemistry, and the use of traditional knowledge by modern science. May require field work with travel at student expense. Prerequisites: BIOL 100, 101, BOT 200 (C grade or better), ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); ANTH 110 or SZOC 100; or permission of the instructor.

512 Aquatic and Wetland Plants. (3) Taxonomy and ecology of the vascular plant flora of aquatic habitats. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better), MICR 200 (C grade or better), and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); BOT 410 and 451; graduate standing in biology.

554 Limnology. (3) The study of inland waters and their biological, physical and chemical parameters. Outside field trips required. Prerequisites: At least 18 semester hours in biology, introductory chemistry and physics; graduate standing in biology.

575 Special Topics. (1–3, repeatable) Topics are studied which are not assigned or covered in other courses in the department. The format of this course will vary depending the topic, instructor, and the needs of students. Prerequisites: Permission of the instructor; graduate standing in biology.

Microbiology (MICR)

400G Bacteriology. (3) Cultural, morphologic, and metabolic properties and methods of isolation of bacteria as related to home and community life, industry, medicine, and agriculture. Prerequisites: One year of chemistry, BOT 200 (C grade or better), ZOOL 200 (C grade or better) and MICR 200 (C grade or better); graduate standing in biology.

401G Mycology. (3) An introduction to the biology of fungi emphasizing their morphology, ecology, physiology, and applied aspects; laboratory techniques used in isolation, culture, and identification. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better), ZOOL 200 (C grade or better), and MICR 200 (C grade or better) or permission of the instructor; graduate standing in biology.

402G Field Mycology. (3) Identification, systematics and ecology of macro‑fungi. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); graduate standing in biology.

404G Biology of Archaea. (3) Knowing an organism by its genome, Archaeal Cell Structure, Molecular Phylogenetics of Archaea, Life in extreme environments, Biogeography, Ecology, Central Metabolism, Sulfur Metabolism, Methanogenesis, Genetic Exchange, Gene Expression, Growth and Stress Physiology, Archaea in Biotechnology. Prerequisites: BIOL 330, BIOL 340, and MICR 200 (C grade or better). MICR 400 would be useful but not required.

405G Virology. (3) A study of the biological characteristics of animal, plant, and bacterial viruses and the viruses which cause disease. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better), ZOOL 200 (C grade or better) and MICR 200 (C grade or better); graduate standing in biology.

423G Phycology. (3) Morphology, taxonomy, physiology, genetics, and ecology of the algae, particularly freshwater forms. May not be taken by students who have completed BOT 423. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); graduate standing in biology.

434G Immunology. (3) A study of antigens and antibodies, the immune response and immunity, immunological testing, allergy and hypersensitivity, transplantation, and autoimmune disease. Laboratory includes selected immunological techniques. Prerequisites: One year of chemistry, BOT 200 (C grade or better), ZOOL 200 (C grade or better), and MICR 200 (C grade or better); graduate standing in biology.

451G Microbial Ecology. (3) Ecobiology of the major microbial groups and their role in processing carbonaceous and geochemical elements in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better), ZOOL 200 (C grade or better) and MICR 200 (C grade or better); graduate standing in biology.

460G Parasitology. (3) Ecology and evolutionary relationships of parasitic eukaryotes. Emphasis on parasites of humans. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); graduate standing in biology.

461G Plant Pathology. (3) Principles of phytopathology including the causal agents, development, diagnosis, and control of plant diseases. May not be taken by students who have completed BOT 461. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better), ZOOL 200 (C grade or better), and MICR 200 (C grade or better) or permission of instructor.

463G Pathogenic Bacteriology. (3) The study of bacteria, rickettsia, mycoplasma, and chlamydia which cause disease in humans. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better), ZOOL 200 (C grade or better) and MICR 200 (C grade or better); graduate standing in biology.

464G Medical Mycology. (3) The study of fungi which cause disease in humans. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better), one advanced course in microbiology (preferably MICR 401 or 463) or permission of the instructor; graduate standing in biology.

465G Industrial and Fermentation Microbiology. (3) Examines the commercial use and large-scale cultivation of microorganisms to produce natural products and processes of major economic, environmental, and social importance. Laboratory exercises in microbial fermentation processes. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better), MICR 200 (C grade or better), and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

Zoology (ZOOL)

408G Field Ornithology. (3) A course devoted to the study of birds, emphasizing study techniques used in natural environments. Topics covered will include reproductive behavior, ecology, communication, systematic, and conservation. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

410G Ornithology. (3) Identification, biology, ecology, and life histories of birds. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); graduate standing in biology.

411G Entomology. (3) Principles of entomology, including classification, general biology, and morphology. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); graduate standing in biology.

412G Mammalogy. (3) Identification, classification, distribution, and life histories of mammals. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); graduate standing in biology.

413G Herpetology. (3) Identification, classification, distribution, and biology of reptiles and amphibians. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); graduate standing in biology.

414G Ichthyology. (3) Identification, classification, distribution, and life histories of fishes. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); graduate standing in biology.

415G Invertebrate Zoology. (3) A study of invertebrate form and function as it relates to taxonomy, evolution, ecology, behavior, and physiology. Laboratory will involve comparative experimental and observational approaches. Prerequisite: ZOOL 200 (C grade or better).

416G Marine Mammalogy. (4) Alteration in physiology, pathogenesis of structure and function of the human body leading to disease, and manifestations of disease states are discussed. In addition, body system interaction is analyzed in maintaining physiological homeostasis during disease/altered states. Prerequisites: MICRO 200 (C grade or better), ZOOL 230 (C grade or better), ZOOL 231 (C grade or better), Registered Nurse , or permission of instructor.

420G Biology of Aging. (3) Introduction to the nature and theories of aging. A study of the processes involved at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels of development and the changes that occur with time. Relationships between aging and immunity, neoplasia, genetics, evolution, etc. are explored. Emphasis on humans. Prerequisites: One course in biology or permission of the instructor; graduate standing in biology.

430G Animal Physiology. (3) Primarily mammalian physiology, concerning the functions of nervous, muscular, respiratory, digestive, excretory, reproductive, and endocrine systems. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better), and one year of chemistry; graduate standing in biology.

432G Neurobiology. (3) Provides a quantitative understanding of neurophysiology in the context of neural systems that underlie animal behavior. Laboratory uses animal preparations and computer models.

451G Advanced Topics in Animal Ecology. (3) Relationships of animals in their environment. Prerequisites: BIOL 350, ZOOL 200 (C grade or better), ENG 280; graduate standing in biology.

452G Freshwater Biology. (3) Common freshwater organisms and some of their relationships to one another, to their environment, and to humans. May not be taken by students who have completed BOT 452. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); graduate standing in biology.

460G Parasitology. (3) Ecology and evolutionary relationships of parasitic eukaryotes. Emphasis on parasites of humans. Prerequisites: BOT 200 (C grade or better) and ZOOL 200 (C grade or better); graduate standing in biology.

485G (cross-listed with RPTA 485G) Resource Management for Fly Fisheries. (3) Students will learn trout stream ecology and management, and gain fly-fishing experience. Course includes a one-week trip to a stream for students to meet with resource professionals and to practice their skills. Prerequisites: One of the following: BOT 200 (C grade or better), MICR 200 (C grade or better), ZOOL 200 (C grade or better), RPTA 110, RPTA 111 or permission of the instructor.

553 Animal Behavior. (3) The activities and responses of animals which facilitate survival under natural conditions. Prerequisites: Graduate standing in biology.

554 Limnology. (3) The study of inland waters and their biological, physical and chemical parameters. Outside field trips required. Trip estimate: $10. Prerequisite: At least 18 hours of biology, introductory chemistry and physics; graduate standing in biology.

561 Fisheries Management. (3) Techniques of study, maintenance, and improvement of fisheries resources. Prerequisites: ZOOL 414 or permission of the instructor; graduate standing in biology.

562 Wildlife Management. (3) Techniques of study, maintenance, and improvement of game resources. Prerequisites: BIOL 350 or permission of the instructor; graduate standing in biology.

578 Zoo/Aquarium Practicum. (3) Gain practical experience at organizations that hold captive animals, such as zoos, aquaria, oceanaria, or animal rehabilitation facilities. Experience includes legal issues, ethical issues, husbandry standards and methods, research methods, organizational structure and policy, and facilities management. Students must work a minimum of 120 hours at the facility. Graded S/U. Prerequisites: Acceptance in the post-baccalaureate certificate program in Zoo and Aquarium Studies.

583 Bioacoustics. (3) Survey of animal adaptations for producing and receiving sound. The effects of human-generated noise on wildlife is described. Techniques for recording sounds, and measuring amplitude and frequency, and time characteristics of sounds are demonstrated. Students will make recordings of animals in the field. Analysis of animal sounds using computer programs is required. Prerequisite: One year of college physics, or permission of the instructor.

584 Biological Studies in Zoos and Oceanaria. (3) This course discusses the types of studies suited to animals in a captive environment, current research trends, and new techniques being applied to animals in a zoo or oceanarium setting. Long-term monitoring of animals with known life histories provides unique research opportunities. Course covers topics on a variety of vertebrates and emphasizes research conducted at local zoos or oceanaria. Student research project required. Prerequisites: At least one year of college-level biology, senior biology major, or permission of the instructor.

585 Animal Training. (3) This course discusses concepts of training in a variety of animals. Techniques for observing behavior, operant conditioning, research, and husbandry/medical training are described. Laboratories include training demonstrations on animals at the Shedd Aquarium. Prerequisites: At least one year of college-level biology or psychology, senior biology major, or permission of the instructor.