References

Barclay, K. (1990). From scribbling to 'real' writing: What parents and teachers should know. In N. Cecil (Ed.), Literacy in the 90s (pp. 1-7). Dubuque, IA: Kendall-Hunt.

Brazee, P., & Haynes, S.W. (1989). Special education and whole language: From an evaluator's viewpoint. In K. Goodman & Y. Goodman (Eds.), Whole language evaluation (pp. 249-260). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Brecht, M., & Woodward, D. (1987). Ganova: A multivariance analysis program [Computer software]. UCLA.

Cassatt-James, E.L. (1992). Technology in the classroom. Applications and strategies for the education of children with severe disabilities. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 384 146)

Clay, M.M. (1979). The early detection of reading difficulties. Auckland, New Zealand: Heinemann Educational Books.

Clay, M.M. (1975). What did I write? Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Cousin, P.T., Weekley, T., & Gerard, J. (1993). The functional uses of language and literacy by students with severe language and learning problems. Language Arts, 70, 548-556.

Cutler, C., & Stone, E. (1988). A whole language approach: Teaching reading and writing to behaviorally disordered children. Teaching Behaviorally Disordered Youth, 4, 31-39.

Dentler, R.A. (1984, November). Putting knowledge to work: Issues in providing effective educational dissemination. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Council for Educational Development and Research, Phoenix, AZ.

Dyson, A.H. (1982). Reading, writing, and language: Young children solving the written language puzzle. Language Arts, 59, 829-839.

Erickson, K. & Koppenhaver, D. (1995). Developing a literacy program for children with severe disabilities. The Reading Teacher, 48, 676-684.

Filstead, W.J. (Ed.). (1970). Qualitative methodology: Firsthand involvement with the social world. Chicago: Markham Publishing Co.

Gatz, S, & Meehan, S. (1998, February 8). Investigating engaged learning and best use of technology. [On-line]. Internet. Available: http://www-ed.fnal.gov/lincon/el_invest.shtml

Godt, P., Hutinger, P., Robinson, L., & Schneider, C. (in press). A simple strategy to encourage emergent literacy in young children with disabilities.

Goodman, K.S. (1982). Revaluing readers and reading. Topics in Learning & Learning Disabilities, 1(4), 87-93.

Gunn, B., Simmons, D., Kameenui, E. (1995). Emergent literacy: Synthesis of the research (Technical Report No. 19). University of Oregon: National Center to Improve the Tools of Educators.

Harste, J.C., Woodward, V.A., & Burke, C.L. (1984). Language stories and literacy lessons. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Hasselriss, P. (1982). IEPs and a whole-language model of language arts. Topics in Learning & Learning Disabilities, 1(4), 17-22.

Hiebert, E.H., & Papierz, J.M. (1990). The emergent literacy construct and kindergarten and readiness books of basal reading series. Early Childhood Research Quarter, 5(3), 317-334.

Hutinger, P. (1996). Computer applications in programs for young children with disabilities: Recurring themes. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 13 (1), 105-114, 124.

Hook, C. & Rosenshine, B. (1979). Accuracy of teacher reports of their classroom behavior. Review of Educational Research, 49 (1), 1-12.

Hutinger, P., & Rippey, R. (1997, October). How five autistic children ages three to five responded to computers in their special education classrooms. Presented at Closing the Gap Conference, Minneapolis, MN.

Hutinger, P., & Johanson, J. (in press). Software for young children. In S. Lesar Judge & P.H. Parette (Eds.), Assistive technology for young children with disabilities: A guide to providing family-centered services. Cambridge, MA: Brookline.

Hutinger, P., Johanson, J. Stoneburner, R. (1996). Assistive technology applications in education programs of children with multiple disabilities: A case study report on the state of practice. Journal of Special Education Technology, 8(1), 16-35.

Katims, D.S. (1991). Emergent literacy in early childhood special education: Curriculum and instruction. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 11(1), 69-84.

Katims, D.S. (1994). Emergence of literacy in preschool children with disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 17, 58-69.

Koppenhaver, D.A., & Yoder, D.E. (1993). Classroom literacy instruction for children with severe speech and physical impairments (SSPI): what is and what might be. Topics in Language Disorders, 13(2), 1-15.

Light, J., & McNaughton, D. (1993). Literacy and augmentative and alternative communication (AAC): The expectations and priorities of parents and teachers. Topics in Language Disorders, 13(2), 33-46.

Lincoln, Y., & Guba, E.G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Newberry Park, CA: Sage.

Lincoln, Y., & Guba, E.G. (1989). Fourth generation evaluation. Newberry Park, CA: Sage.

Mason, J., & Allen, J.B. (1986). A review of emergent literacy with implications for research and practice in reading. Review of Research in Education, 13, 3-47.

McGee, L.M. & Lomax, R.G. (1990). On combining apples and oranges: A response to Stahl and Miller. Review of Educational Research, 60(1), 133-140.

Patzer, C.E. & Pettegrew, B.S. (1996). Finding a voice: Primary students with developmental disabilities express personal meanings through writing. Teaching Exceptional Children 29(2), 22-27.

Paisley, W. (1993, May). Knowledge utilization: The role of new communications technologies. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 44(4), 222-234.

Patton, M.Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods. Newberry Park, CA: Sage.

Pierce, P., & Porter, P. (1996). Helping persons with disabilities to become literate using assistive technology: Practice and policy suggestions. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 11(3), 142-146, 162.

Reid, D. K., & Hresko, W.P. (1980). A developmental study of the relation between oral language and early reading in learning disabled and normally achieving children. Learning Disability Quarterly, 3(4), 54-61.

Scarborough, H., & Dobrich, W. (1990). Development of children with early language delay. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 33, 7-83.

Strickland, D.S. (1990). Emergent literacy: How young children learn to read and write. Educational Leadership, 47(6), 18-23.

Sulzby, E. (1986). Writing and reading: Signs of oral and written language organization in the young child. In W. H. Teale and E. Sulzby (Eds.), Emergent literacy: Understanding reading and writing (pp. 50-89). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Sulzby, E. (1988). A study of children's early reading development. In A.D. Pelligrini (Ed.), Psychological bases for early education (pp. 39-75). Chichester, England: Wiley.

Sulzby, E. (1990). Assessment of emergent writing and children's language while writing. In L.M. Morrow & J.K. Smith (Eds.), Assessment for instruction in early literacy (pp. 83-108). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Sulzby, E. & Teale, W.H. (1991). Emergent literacy. In R. Barr, M. Kammil, P. Mosenthal, & D. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (2nd ed., pp. 727-757). New York: Longman.

Teale, W.H., & Sulzby, E. (1986). Emergent literacy as a perspective for examining how young children become writers and readers. In W.H. Teale & E. Sulzby (Eds.), Emergent literacy: Writing and reading. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Tesch, R. (1990). Qualitative research: Analysis, types, and software tools. New York: The Falmer Press.

West, R.F. & Rhoton, C. (1992, April). Educational research and decision making: An examination of the barriers to the utilization of educational research among school leaders in Tennessee. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. San Francisco.

Wiederholt, J., & Hale, G. (1982). Indirect and direct treatment of learning disabilities. Topics in Learning & Learning Disabilities, 1(4), 79-86.