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Mechanical Maintenance Safety Rules

Section 1 - Pipe Fitter

  1. Required
    1. Read General Safety Rules.
    2. View Proper Lifting PowerPoint presentation.
    3. View Proper Ladder safety PowerPoint presentation.
    4. Sturdy work shoes/boots.
    5. Read Confined Space Entry Training.
    6. Lock Out/Tag Out Training.
    7. Read Machine Shop Safety Rules.
  2. Recommended
    1. Standard First Aid and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.
    2. Safety work shoes/boots.
    3. Read Vehicle Operation Safety Rules.
  3. Always Remember
    1. No one except properly authorized operators shall use gas or electric welding equipment..
    2. All welding equipment shall be checked by the operator at the beginning of each shift. Special attention should be given to the following items:
      1. defective hose.
      2. leaks at valves, regulators, fittings, gauges, and torch.
      3. defective or dirty torch or blowpipe.
      4. frayed electrical wiring, and
      5. loose or dirty electrical connections.
    3. Suitable eye protection, gloves and clothing shall be worn during welding or cutting operations or while cleaning scale from welds.
    4. When working in a confined space, always have someone present to render assistance in case of emergency, and follow all other confined entry procedures before entering the confined space.
    5. Adequate ventilation and respiratory protection shall be used while welding in confined spaces or while brazing, cutting or welding zinc, brass, bronze, cadmium, galvanized or lead-coated material.
    6. Application of these rules is the responsibility of the welder; if he is in doubt about the fire safety of any particular situation, he should ask for additional instructions from his supervisor.
    7. One man should be assigned as a fire watcher. He is to watch for fires, have the proper fire extinguisher available, stay on the job after welding and cutting is finished to make sure that there is no fire danger, and know the location of the nearest fire alarm signal box and telephone which can be used in an emergency.
    8. Cylinders shall not be placed or stored where sparks from welding or cutting operations can reach them.
    9. Do not drop cylinders or permit them to strike each other.
    10. Cylinders are not to be hoisted by wrapping a sling around the body or cap. A carrier must be used which holds the cylinder securely and positively prevents it from falling out.
    11. Care should be taken in the handling of cylinders so as to keep from obliterating or damaging the color and title identification of the material.
    12. Avoid handling gas containers, particularly oxygen, with greasy hands or with greasy gloves.
    13. Carrying a cylinder is a two-man job. However, when a hand truck or a co-worker is not available, and a cylinder is to be moved a short distance, one may move the cylinder by tilting and rolling it on the bottom edge. Do not drag or slide the cylinder.
    14. Avoid rolling or sliding cylinders along on the body. Preferably, cylinders should be transported in the vertical position, this is especially desirable for acetylene cylinders. Acetylene, however, may be carried in the horizontal position provided it is used only in the standing position and only after it has been in that position 24 hours. This will prevent expelling acetone.
    15. Cylinders shall not be allowed to come in contact with energized conductors or ground wires from electrical equipment.
    16. The cylinder cap must be kept on the cylinder when it is being transported. When the regulator is removed, the cap must be replaced at once.
    17. Cylinders being carried in vehicles must be securely tied in place to prevent overturning. Welding outfits may be transported with regulators on cylinders but must be securely fastened to the vehicle to prevent the outfit from overturning or breaking loose.
    18. A suitable truck, chain or other steadying device shall be used to keep cylinders from being knocked over while in use.
    19. Do not use electric or gas heaters, a direct flame, or live steam to increase the discharge rate of cylinders. If an increased discharge rate is required, the cylinder can be immersed in a bath of lukewarm (120°F) water. Fusible plugs melt at 157°F and soften at lower temperatures. Do not submerge the cylinder valve.
    20. Make sure of the contents of a cylinder before using it. Do not rely on the color of the cylinders; look for the name of the gas on the sides of the cylinder. Do not use a cylinder not so identified.
    21. When a cylinder has been emptied, it should be tagged EMPTY and promptly returned to the store. The cylinder is not to be marked EMPTY with crayon or chalk. The cylinder cap is to be replaced as soon as it is disconnected.
    22. Unless a cylinder carried an EMPTY tag, it should be presumed to be full and should be treated accordingly.
    23. Cylinders and valves should not be repaired or altered. Refer defective equipment to your supervisor. Never tamper with safety devices in valves or cylinders.
    24. The recessed top of cylinders shall not be used as a place for tools.
    25. A leaking cylinder shall not be used.
    26. When an employee finds that a cylinder valve is leaking, he will try to close the valve by manually tightening it. Use of wrenches or leverage producing tools to force the valve shut is prohibited. A leak between the cylinder and regulator should not be stopped by tightening the adjusting nut until the cylinder valve has first been closed and time allotted for the gas to escape. If the valve continues to leak, the leaking cylinder will be identified by an Unsafe Tag, marked with the words "Valve Leaks" and the cylinder should be taken to a safe area and discharged. It should then be returned to the store.
    27. Before discharging, see that persons and sources of ignition are kept away. Open the valve slowly and stand by until the cylinder is empty; if the contents are irritant or toxic, wear a respirator of the correct type, and any other protection necessary.
    28. Cylinders containing combustible or toxic gases such as hydrogen or acetylene should be drained through pressure regulators and their rates of discharge controlled to avoid dangerous accumulations of these gases. Hydrogen may self-ignite if discharged rapidly.
    29. Hoses should be in good condition and the connections to the hose regulators and other appliances tight. Use clamps, not wire. Connections should be tested for leaks by covering with a solution of soapy water. Do not use flame. Hose shall not be repaired with tape. Faulty hose will be replaced.
    30. Regulators, pressure gauges, hoses, or other appliances should not be interchanged with similar equipment specified for other gases.
    31. No attempt shall be made to mix gases in a cylinder or to transfer gas from one cylinder to another.
    32. Never place the hands or any other part of the body in a gas stream. Any oil or foreign material in the container may penetrate the skin.
    33. Before connecting a pressure regulator to a cylinder or manifold, the valve is opened one-fourth of a turn and closed immediately. This clears the particles of dust and dirt from the valve opening. Exception: This practice is forbidden on hydrogen cylinders as the hydrogen may self-ignite.
    34. Do not use oxygen for ventilating purposes.
    35. Stand aside when opening cylinder valves. Be sure regulators are closed before opening cylinder valves to prevent regulator explosions.
    36. To avoid excessive torque on valves, never use an ordinary wrench or a hammer on a cylinder valve. Use only the cylinder wrench fastened to the welding outfit.
    37. Never permit oil, grease, or other readily combustible substances to come in contact with oxygen cylinders, valves, regulators, gauges or fittings.
    38. Never use an acetylene torch when working on scaffolds or platforms suspended by manila or hemp ropes. Wire rope at least 5/16" diameter must be used in place of manila rope.
    39. Never use compressed air for blowing out welding or cutting equipment, as air may contain oil and moisture. Use oxygen to blow out oxygen hose and fuel gas to blow out fuel hose.
    40. Point the acetylene valve outlet away from the oxygen cylinder and never stand in front of the gauge while opening a cylinder valve.
    41. If acetylene cylinders are stored on their sides, place them upright at least 2-1/2 hours before being used to avoid the possibility of drawing out acetone.
    42. Cylinder valves should be fully opened when in use except for the acetylene valve. Acetylene cylinder valves are not to be opened more than one and one-half turns of the stem.
    43. When oxy-acetylene welding outfits are left after finishing a job, the cylinder valve should be closed first, and then the hose drained. Check to see that the regulator pressure does not build up indicating that the cylinder valve is leaking.
    44. When lighting a torch, always use a friction lighter. Matches will not be used to light a torch.
    45. Never use acetylene in a pressurized chamber. The acetylene breaks down and may lead to an explosion.
    46. Return oxygen cylinders for filling with a minimum of 25 psi residual pressure.
    47. Return acetylene cylinders for filling with a minimum of 15 psi residual pressure.
    48. When changing empty oxygen and acetylene cylinders for full ones, observe the following steps:
      1. Shut off the valve on the empty cylinder and then release all gas from the regulator.
      2. Release thumbscrew on regulator.
      3. Disconnect regulator and connect it to full tank; stand on the opposite side of the tank while opening the valve. After the tank is open, adjust the thumbscrew on the regulator to the proper pressure.
    49. Shut off power before adjusting or cleaning any part of electric welding apparatus.
    50. When replacing electrodes, be sure you have dry gloves on both hands. Take care to grasp the electrode on the flux-covered portion. Do not touch the bare position of the electrode.
    51. Never touch conducting materials if your clothes are wet. Be sure hands are dry. Don't stand on damp ground while welding.
    52. Make sure all electrical wiring is in good condition, not frayed or exposed. See that defective sections are repaired or replaced immediately.
    53. The exposed metal parts of cable connectors must be insulated.
    54. No electrical welding machine, either AC or DC, shall be operated until the machine is properly grounded.
    55. Arc welding operations, wherever possible, must be screened to protect the eyes of nearby employees.
    56. Never change either the polarity or the rotary switch when machine is under a load. A burn may result from the arcing at high current.
    57. Pipes carrying gases, flammable liquids or electrical conductors should never be used as ground returns.
    58. Electrode holders should always be held by the handle when carrying them, never draped over shoulder, under arm, etc., because of possible electric shock.
    59. Never allow your welding heads to become tangled as they become a tripping hazard. Keep them out of walkways as much as possible. Cover them if they may be damaged by vehicles.
    60. Never exceed the rating capacity of the arc welding machine.
    61. Never lay your electrode holder down on the work, as this may cause an arc flash or short circuit.
    62. Never operate a gasoline powered welder where you can't get rid of the engine fumes.
    63. Never strike an arc on a compressed gas cylinder.
    64. To protect the eyes, face and body during electrical welding and cutting, the operator shall wear an approved helmet, proper protective gloves and clothing.
    65. Wear impact-type safety spectacles under the welding helmet or shield.
    66. When arc welding, always use an approved helmet or shield with arc welding glass lens of correct shade number.
      Lens Shade Current Range (amps #)
      No. 8 30-75
      No. 10 75-200
      No. 12 200-400
      No. 14 above 400
    67. Leather sleeves, aprons, gloves and vests are available to arc welders. Use them to avoid burns, especially when doing overhead work. Wear gloves on both hands.
    68. Welder's helpers or other employees near electric welding and exposed to the arc shall wear approved eye protection.
    69. Never strike an arc if you know someone near you is not wearing protection against eye flash. Welders are responsible for seeing that helpers' eyes are protected at all times.
    70. When chipping a weld, proper eye protection shall be worn.
    71. Never do inert-gas metal-arc welding near trichloroethylene. The reaction of ultraviolet rays, produced by this process, upon trichloroethylene causes the formation of toxic gases. Stop welding if you smell trichloroethylene.
    72. Due to increased amount of harmful ultraviolet rays produced by this process, it is especially important that leather sleeves, aprons, vests and eye protection be worn. Cover the skin completely.
    73. Adequate ventilation should be provided not only for metal fumes but also because of the excessive production of ozone which is characteristic of arc welding. The amount of ozone increases with amperage. Where possible, a local exhaust hood should be worn - see your supervisor.
    74. Be sure the argon or helium cylinders are never grounded. Cylinders, fittings and supports should be insulated with hood or rubber from building structures or fixtures to which they are secured. Hang the welding torch or any electrode holder on a hook while it's not in use - not on the flow meter.
    75. Prior to excavation efforts must be made to determine if there are any underground utilities in the area.
    76. The walls and faces of excavations and trenches over five feet, where workers may be exposed to danger, must be guarded by a shoring system, sloping of the ground, or some other means.
    77. Appropriate trench boxes and/or shields may be used in lieu of shoring or sloping.
    78. Tools, equipment, and excavated material must be kept two feet from the lip of the trench.
    79. Daily inspection must be made of trenches and excavations.
    80. Ladders and steps must be located so as to require no more than 25 feet of lateral travel in trenches 4 feet deep or more.
    81. Any runways and sidewalks must be kept free of debris and if undermined, must be adequately shored to prevent cave-in.
    82. Appropriate barricade and warning signs must be utilized to prevent employees and the general public from falling.

Section 2 - Plumber

  1. Required
    1. Read General Safety Rules.
    2. Read Machine Shop Safety Rules.
    3. Lock Out/Tag Out Training.
    4. Confined Space Training.
    5. View Proper Lifting Powerpoint presentation.
    6. Work shoes/boots.
    7. Asbestos Awareness Training.
    8. Bloodborne Pathogens Training.
    9. Hazard Communications/Right to Know Training.
  2. Recommended
    1. Standard First Aid and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.
    2. Safety shoes/boots.
    3. Read Vehicle Operation Safety Rules.
  3. Always Remember
    1. Proper housekeeping is important. Keep all work and storage areas as clean as possible. This includes cleaning up spills.
    2. Stack materials, pipe, etc., in a safe manner out of walk and door ways.
    3. Know the application, limitations, and potential hazards of the tool used.
    4. Select the proper tool for the job.
    5. Remove adjusting keys and wrenches before operating power tools.
    6. Do not use tools with frayed cards or loose or broken switches.
    7. Keep guards in place and in working order.
    8. Have ground plugs in place.
    9. Keep alert to potential hazards in the working environment such as damp locations or the presence of highly combustible materials.
    10. Dress properly to prevent loose clothing from getting caught in moving parts.
    11. Use safety glasses, dust or face masks, or other protective clothing and equipment when necessary.
    12. Do not surprise or distract anyone using a power tool.
    13. Store combustible waste materials in a covered metal receptacle.
    14. Prior to excavation, efforts must be made to determine if there are any underground utilities in the area. This will be accomplished by calling "JULIE" and by checking in house utility prints.
    15. The walls and faces of excavations and trenches over five feet, where workers may be exposed to danger, must be guarded by a shoring system, sloping of the ground, or some other means.
    16. Appropriate trench boxes and/or shields may be used in lieu of shoring or sloping.
    17. Tools, equipment, and excavated material must be kept two feet from the lip of the trench.
    18. Daily inspections must be made of trenches and excavations.
    19. Ladders and steps must be located so as to require no more than 25 feet of lateral travel in trenches 4 feet deep or more.
    20. Any runways and sidewalks must be kept free of debris and if undermined, must be adequately shored to prevent a cave-in.
    21. Appropriate barricades and warning signs must be utilized to prevent employees and the general public from falling.
    22. Follow all safety codes.
    23. When working with any type of hazardous material, follow all cautions, and use protective equipment when necessary.
    24. Sweat soldering can be dangerous; follow all precautions. A respirator may be necessary.
    25. When working in an environment where asbestos is present, a protective suit and appropriate respirator may be required. Check with your supervisor before starting work if you find disturbed or damaged asbestos mechanical insulation.
    26. Personal protective equipment for protection against infection(s) from wastes is available and can be checked out from Stores, i.e. rubber boots, rubber gloves, protective suits, respirators.

Section 3 - Stationary Engineer

  1. Required
    1. Read General Safety Rules.
    2. Lock Out/Tag Out and Training.
    3. Confined Space Entry Training.
    4. View Proper Lifting Powerpoint presentation.
    5. View Proper Ladder safety Powerpoint presentation.
    6. Work shoes/boots.
    7. Read Machine Shop Safety Rules.
    8. Hazard Communication/Right to Know Training.
    9. Asbestos Awareness Training.
  2. Recommended
    1. Standard First Aid and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.
    2. Safety shoes/boots.
    3. Vehicle Operation Safety Rules.
  3. Always Remember
    1. Personal safety should include caution:
      1. Heat from combustion and equipment surface.
      2. Escaping steam and hot water from leaks.
      3. Exhaust fumes from the combustion process.
      4. High noise levels.
      5. Slippery surface due to spilled oil, water or grease.
      6. Toxic fumes from solvents and other chemicals.
      7. Circulating smoke, dirt and dust.
      8. Electrical shocks from exposed wiring and open control panels.
      9. Injuries from rotating or moving machinery parts.
      10. Explosions caused by over pressure conditions.
      11. Explosions caused by accumulation of unspent fuel.
      12. Skin burns from exposure to chemicals.
      13. Fire resulting from improperly stored combustibles.
      14. Cuts from protruding objects.
      15. Trips resulting from poor housekeeping.
    2. Never exceed recommended working pressures on equipment.
    3. Never block combustion air supplies or permanently override a control setting.
    4. Never hammer parts under pressure or use a pipe to increase the leverage of a wrench.
    5. Keep all combustibles away from hot surfaces.
    6. Do not vary the setting of a safety valve.
    7. No smoking in combustible storage area.
    8. Repair exposed electrical wires.
    9. Use tools that are designed for the work and ensure the tool is in good repair.
    10. Never permanently by-pass a safety interlock.
    11. Don't operate a malfunctioning unit.
    12. Avoid jury rigging on operating control and never cap an exhaust piping.
    13. Nameplates should remain free from dirt, oil and grease.
    14. Purge fume-filled compartment before entering.
    15. Do not try to hand turn energized equipment.
    16. Use goggles when looking into an air stream.
    17. Wear the appropriate clothing.
    18. Inspect equipment before starting.
    19. Use the proper tool when removing fumes or breakers.
    20. Do not stand in front of pressure-discharging parts.
    21. Open and close valves slowly.
    22. Keep cage glasses clean and free flowing.
    23. Repair leaks immediately.
    24. Allow welded parts to cool naturally.
    25. Clean up spills immediately.
    26. Keep machine guards in place.
    27. Shut down equipment before servicing or making repairs.
    28. Vent rooms where combustibles are stored.
    29. Place rags soiled with flammable material in metal containers.
    30. Secure power tools before leaving an area.
    31. Use explosion proof drop lights.
    32. Inventory your tools after making repairs.
    33. Use gloves when handling hot items.
    34. Make sure room exhaust fans work properly.
    35. Tag units "Out of Service" before making repairs.
    36. Keep supplies and materials properly stored.
    37. Repair all equipment according to code and good repair procedures.
    38. Before working with, or resetting high voltage equipment, contact your supervisor.

Section 4 - Utilities & Maintenance Repairman

  1. Required
    1. Read General Safety Rules.
    2. Read Machine Shop Safety Rule.
    3. View Proper Lifting PowerPoint presentation.
    4. View Proper Ladder safety PowerPoint presentation.
    5. Lock Out/Tag Out Training.
    6. Work shoes/boots.
    7. Confined Space Entry Training.
    8. Hazard Communication/Right to Know Training.
  2. Recommended
    1. Standard First Aid and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.
    2. Safety shoes/boots.
    3. Vehicle Operation Safety Rules.
  3. Always Remember
    1. In all cases, wiring repairs must conform to code.
    2. Never use a circuit breaker rated higher than the ampere capacity of the wire, and never substitute a wad of foil or a coin for a fuse.
    3. Do not handle energized equipment including fuse boxes, when standing on a damp surface.
    4. It is necessary to avoid bodily contact with liquid refrigerants and to avoid inhaling refrigerant gas.
    5. Care must be used so that refrigerants do not contact eye. Protective eye wear will be worn when handling refrigerant.
    6. In case of refrigerant leaks, ventilate the area. Do not allow open flame in the area until it is ventilated.
    7. Before repairing any machinery, be sure that all power is off, and do not clean, adjust, or lubricate parts which are in motion guards or are fully enclosed.
    8. Machine guards should remain installed or, when necessary, removed only for maintenance and repaired and then replaced.
    9. Repair all equipment and appliances according to code and good repair procedures.
    10. Perform minor electrical repairs on mechanical equipment and appliances downstream of disconnect.
    11. Use the correct tool for the job.
    12. Never use a broken tool or a tool in disrepair.
    13. Make sure you know the limitations of tools.
    14. Inspect electrical tools for good repair before using.
Electrical Maintenance
  1. When performing maintenance and repair work, always be aware of the following:
    1. All circuits, circuit boards and conduits must be properly labeled. Report any problem right away.
    2. When replacing fuses, make sure the properly rated fuse is used.
    3. When working with equipment, etc., that cannot be repaired immediately, tagging out and locking out, in addition to cutting the power, should be a common practice.
    4. Always wear protective clothing when working with cables, never pick up a cable at a splice, and never carry an energized cable over the shoulder.
    5. Make sure the work area is dry and reasonably clean.
    6. If any chemicals are in the work area, they should be removed, especially if they are flammable.
    7. Know the location of fire extinguishers and how to use them.
    8. All tools should be in good repair and properly insulated where appropriate.
    9. If electrical tools are to be used, they should be in good operating condition and should be grounded before use.
    10. Use the proper tool for the job. If the proper tool is not available, contact a supervisor. Do not use make-shift tools.
    11. Make sure all work is performed according to code.
    12. Inspect all replacement parts before installation.
    13. Use common sense and never use short-cuts when performing work.

Section 5 - Water Station Operator

  1. Required
    1. Read General Safety Rules.
    2. View Proper Lifting PowerPoint presentation.
    3. View Proper Ladder safety PowerPoint presentation.
    4. Respiratory Protection Training.
    5. Work shoes/boots.
    6. Confined Space Entry Training.
    7. Lockout/Tagout Training.
    8. Hazard Communication/Right to Know Training.
  2. Recommended
    1. Standard First Aid and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.
    2. Read Vehicle Operation Safety Rules.
    3. Safety shoes/boots.
  3. Always Remember
    1. Use the proper tool for the job. Never use a broken tool.
    2. Make sure the work area is as dry as possible. Mop wet floors.
    3. Never use a power tool when water is present.
    4. Shut down equipment before servicing or attempting to perform other work.
    5. Dispose of empty containers properly. Always store unused chemicals in their original container and keep securely sealed.
    6. Be aware of the potential hazards when handling various chemicals.
    7. Never mix chemicals as an explosion could occur.
    8. Proper storage temperature of some chemicals must be maintained. Too high of a temperature may cause an explosion.
    9. Protective clothing should be worn when the chemical could cause a health hazard.
    10. A mask or respirator may be necessary when handling some powdered chemicals. Read and follow the label warnings.
    11. Calcium Hypochlorite is a stable, nonflammable material which cannot be ignited, contact with heat, acids, or combustible, argonies, or oxidizable materials may cause fire. This chemical should be stored in a location separate from other chemicals or material with which it can react to.
    12. Sodium bisulfate causes immediate hazard to health.
    13. Sodium Thiosulfate causes no immediate hazard to health.
    14. Sodium nitrates cause no health hazard if present in normal quantities. Exceptionally high concentration may cause cyanosis.
    15. Soda ash causes no immediate health hazards.
    16. Caustic soda causes no immediate health hazards.
    17. Sulfuric Acid is a corrosive, dense, oily liquid, colored clear or dark brown. Once diluted, it is highly corrosive and should be contained in rubber, glass, or plastic-lined equipment to point of application. It causes severe burns and will decompose clothing and shoes. Complete protective equipment is required when handling this chemical.
    18. 151 Cooling Tower Biocide I is a clear to amber colored liquid with a slight odor. If there is a spill, wash down with water or soak up with sand and dispose of properly in a landfill. Neoprene or rubber gloves and eye protection should be worn. Rubber boots and apron should be worn if possibility of contact during use. Avoid contact with eyes, skin and clothing. Store away from heat, sparks, and open flame. Do not store in improperly marked containers and keep closed when not in use.
    19. Corrosion inhibitae A196 is a red-brown liquid with a disagreeable odor. Soak up spills with sand and place in plastic drum. Product should not enter waterways. When handling general ventilation is required. Use N10SH approved respirator with organic vapor/acid gas protection. Macomb Fire Department will use SCBA for confined spaces and emergencies. Wear apron, rubber gloves, and chemical goggles. Keep away from heat, sparks, and flame. Keep container closed when not in use. Do not cut or weld container as liquid is flammable. This chemical is highly corrosive and flammable. Splashed body parts should be flushed with water for at least fifteen minutes.
    20. HEDP is a clear to amber solution with a characteristic odor. Good ventilation is important and use N10SH approved respirator. Macomb Fire Department SCBA equipment may be necessary. Wear protective gloves and chemical goggles. If a splash occurs, flush with water. If a spill occurs, absorb with sand or other suitable agent. Do not contaminate waterways. This is a corrosive as well as flammable liquidation when the water has been removed. Keep container closed during storage and avoid contact with skin and eyes.
    21. Sodium salt tolyltrianzole is a white to tan colored powder with a characteristic odor. Containers must be kept tightly closed and avoid contact with skin. In case of a spill, ventilate and wear a respirator and other protective equipment for hands and eyes. If there is a fire involving this chemical, full protective equipment, including SCBA should be used.
    22. Molybdates consist of a fine white powder with no odor that is water soluble. This chemical may cause eye or respiratory irritation at high concentrations. If eye contact is made, flush with copious amounts of water and seek medical attention. Skin contact poses no serious problems, but if irritation occurs flush with water. If a spill occurs, vacuuming is a good method of clean-up. Dispose of in accordance with State and Federal requirements.
      During use, exhaust fans should be in operation and wear protective eye covering. Gloves are not required. Maintain environmental concentrations of sodium molybdate at or below 5 mg/m3.


Section 6 - Machine Shop

General
  1. These job safety rules are in addition to the General Safety Rules. You must know and follow both.
  2. Workers must not remove or make ineffective any safeguards, unless authorized. Safeguards removed for repairs must be replaced promptly or temporary guards installed.
  3. Machines and equipment shall be operated by authorized personnel only.
  4. No machine shall be left unattended while it is in motion.
  5. Cleaning, oiling or adjusting any machine shall not be done while the machine is in motion.
  6. Materials to be machined shall be securely fastened or clamped to the working surfaces before starting the machine.
  7. Keys or other adjusting tools must never be left so that they may creep, be thrown, or fall when machine is started.
  8. Use a brush, special tool or hook to remove chips, shavings or other material from work. Flowing shavings shall not be handled with bare hands; metal hooks shall be used.
  9. Revolving shafting, although apparently smooth, will catch loose or ragged clothing, hair or wiping rags. Proper clothes and caution are always necessary when working around any revolving machinery.
  10. When tightening work in chuck jaws with chuck wrench, operator shall see that wrench fits properly; operator should take proper stance when tightening jaws to prevent falling if wrench slips.
  11. When placing or removing heavy castings or billets from machines, operator shall get help or crane service to prevent injury.
  12. Operators shall keep hands away from cutters and bars while operating machines. Operators shall keep hands off work while machine is in operation.
  13. Operators shall stand so that they can easily reach the machine controls.
  14. Cutters and tools shall be in the clear before machines are started.
  15. Clean-up chips, spills, etc., on and around machinery after each use.
Lathes
  1. All materials shall be properly secured in chucks and collets before machines are started.
  2. Do not leave chuck wrench in chuck after removing work from chuck.
  3. Keep hands off chuck rims when lathe is in motion.
  4. Do not attempt to screw chuck on lathe spindle with power on, as it may get cross-threaded and cause an accident.
  5. Safety-type lathe dogs shall be used when turning work on centers.
  6. See that tail stock, tool holder and work are properly clamped before turning on power.
  7. It is dangerous to shift step pulley belts with the hands while the belts are in motion with power on; use a belt pole or other suitable stick.
  8. Do not attempt to adjust a tool while the lathe is running.
  9. Operators shall not attempt to use micrometers on revolving work.
Drill Press
  1. Never attempt to hold the work under the drill by hand; clamp it securely to the table before starting the machine.
  2. When tightening drill in chuck of drill press, remove release key before you start machine, or your arm may be twisted around spindle. Never leave key in chuck.
  3. Use drills properly sharpened to cut to the right size.
  4. Run the drill only at the correct speed; forcing or feeding too fast may cause broken drills and result in serious injury.
  5. If the work should slip from clamp, never attempt to stop it with your hands. Stop the machine to make any adjustment or repair.
  6. Drills, reamers, etc., must never be forced by exerting excess pressure on the feed lever. Tools may break and cause injury.
Milling Machines
  1. All work shall be secured properly and all loose objects removed from tables before machines are operated.
  2. Cutters shall be checked for cracks or breaks before mounting and shall be securely mounted before operations are started.
  3. Operators shall keep heads and hands away from cutters when machine is in operation.
  4. File tangs or other makeshift drifts shall not be used to remove taper shank tools. Proper drifts are available in tool rooms.
  5. Safety guards shall be placed around any work item extending beyond machine table.
  6. Milling cutters and other hardened tools shall not be struck with steel hammer. Blocks of wood, rawhide, or copper hammers should be used.
  7. Proper feeds and speeds shall be selected before operations are started.
  8. Machines shall be stopped before any attempts are made to measure or to check work.
  9. Guards and baffles shall be used to protect others from flying chips, oil or coolants.
  10. Operators shall be sure that cutters and feeds are turning in the proper direction so cutters will not climb up or jam. Such an accident can cause injury to the work, the machine, and to the operator as well.
Operation and Grinders
  1. Caution: All grinding wheels operate at dangerous speeds.
  2. See that the grinding wheel fits easily on the spindle. It is dangerous to force it on, nor should it be too loose.
  3. Washers, flange facings, or compressible material shall be fitted between the wheel and its flanges. If blotting paper is used, it should not be thicker than .025 inch.
  4. After a wheel is mounted, allow it to develop full operating speed for at least one minute; meanwhile, stand to one side and out of danger. Never apply the work until this speed test has been made and the wheel has been properly dressed. Under no condition should the wheel revolve faster than the safe R.P.M. recommended by the manufacturer as shown on the label.
  5. Do not force work against a cold wheel, but apply it gradually, giving the wheel an opportunity to warm, thus reducing the chance of breakage. This applies to starting work in the mornings in cold rooms and to new wheels which have been stored in a cold place.
  6. Wheel dressers, except the diamond type, shall be equipped with guards over the top of the cutters to protect against flying pieces, broken cutters, or wheel particles.
  7. Operator shall see that wheel turns freely and is properly mounted before operating.
  8. All wheels should be given the "ring" test before they are mounted on machines.
  9. Gloves should not be worn while operating grinders.
  10. Dust collectors or other exhaust systems shall be in operation during grinding operations on machines so equipped.
  11. Tools or other loose objects shall be kept off machines in operation.
  12. Wheel guards shall be kept in place and in good condition while machine is in operation.
  13. Safe operating speeds are marked on wheels by manufacturers.
  14. Operators shall not run wheels faster than recommended speeds.
  15. Operators shall avoid standing directly in front of grinding wheels, especially when starting.
  16. Wheels loaded or clogged with metal shall not be used until dressed.
  17. Grinding wheels out of round or out of balance shall be trued before using.
  18. Eye protective equipment with sideshields shall be worn while grinders are being operated.
  19. Grindings wheels shall be equipped with tool rests, same must not be worn more than one-eighth inch from stone and work held firmly thereon.
  20. It is unsafe to adjust a work-rest while the grinding wheel is in motion. The rest may slip and break the wheel.
  21. The side of an emery wheel shall not be used for grinding unless it is a special-type wheel for that purpose.
  22. Be especially careful when grinding narrow tools. They are apt to catch between the rest and the wheel.
Planers, Shapers, and Slotters
  1. Jobs shall be securely mounted and all tools removed from tables before machines are started.
  2. Machine stroke shall be properly adjusted so as to clear work and machine tables.
  3. Operators shall stand clear of work that projects over side of planer tables.
  4. Operators shall not try to adjust stroke or position of ram while cut is being taken.
  5. Operators should stand so machine controls are easily reached.
  6. While machines are in operation, hands shall be kept away from clapper boxes. Adjustment shall not be made to tools when clapper boxes are raised.
  7. Screens shall be provided against flying chips or cuttings to protect other employees working nearby.
  8. Operators should take proper stance when pulling on long wrenches to bolt down work on machines to prevent falling and strain should the wrench slip.
Welding
  1. All welding operations shall follow the Job Safety Rules for welding.
Personal Protective Equipment
  1. Safety spectacles, either prescription or plain-type, or a face shield, shall be worn on the job.
  2. Work shoes (safety shoes recommended) should be worn by all machinists since handling material is an essential part of this occupation.
  3. Gloves are recommended for protection in handling material but must not be worn when operating machines.